HANZIHESHUJIXINGTAI

1.汉字的形态及其演变

乐仑彩票JIAGUWEN:JIAGUWENSHISHANGDAIDEWENZI,SHIZHIKEZAIGUIJIAHESHOUGUSHANGDEWENZI。TASHUYUBIJIAOCHENGSHUDEZHONGGUOWENZI,JUBEIXIANGXING、ZHISHIDENGDUOZHONGZAOZIFA,BINGDALIANGSHIYONGJIAJIEZI。YUTUHUAWENZIXIANGBI,QIXIANGXINGZIBUFENYIJINGXIANTIAOHUA、LUNKUOHUA、TEZHENGHUA。

JINWEN:JINWENYOUJIAO“ZHONGDINGWEN”,SHISHANGZHOUSHIDAIKEZAIQINGTONGQISHANGDEWENZI,QIZHONGYIZHOUDAIJINWENWEIDUO。TAZAIJIEGOUSHANGYUJIAGUWENMEIYOUTAIDADEBUTONG,ZHISHIGENGJIAJIANHUAZHENGQILEYIXIE。

XIAOZHUAN:XIAOZHUANSHIZHONGGUODIYICITONGYIZHIZITI,JUSHUSHIZHUANBIANZHIGUANJIAN。QINWENSHIZAI“JINWEN”、“ZHOUWEN”(DAZHUAN)DEJICHUSHANGFAZHANQILAIDEYIZHONGSHUTI,GUQINWENYOUCHENG“QINZHUAN”,HOURENYOUYONG“XIAOZHUAN”CHENGZHI,YIYU“DAZHUAN”QUBIE。

LISHU:LISHUYUNYUYUQINHANZHIJI,TADECHUXIANSHIHANZIFAZHANSHISHANGYIGEZHONGYAODELICHENGBEI。LISHUYIQIANDEHANZISHIYONGHUIHUASHIDEXIANTIAOSHUXIEDE,ERLISHUYIHOUDEHANZISHIYONGHENGSHUPIEDIANZHEDENGBIHUAGOUCHENGDE。ZILISHUCHUXIANHOU,HANZIDEJIEGOUJIBENSHANGGUDINGLEXIALAI。

KAISHU:KAISHUYUNYUYUHANMOHENANBEICHAOSHIQI。KAISHUDECHUANGSHIRENSHIZHONGZHOU。KAISHUBIHUAPINGZHI,ZIXINGFANGZHENG,SHUXIEJIANBIAN。ZHIZHIJINTIAN,KAISHURENGSHIHANZIDEBIAOZHUNZITI。

乐仑彩票CAOSHUYUXINGSHU:GUDAIDEZHONGGUORENHAICHUANGZAOCHULELIANGZHONGKEYIKUAISUSHUXIEDEZITI——CAOSHUHEXINGSHU。CAOSHUZHUYAOYOUZHANGCAO、JINCAOHEKUANGCAOSANZHONG。QIZHONG,CAOSHUZAITANGDAICHUXIANLEYIZHANGXU、HUAISUWEIDAIBIAODEKUANGCAO,ZHANGXUSHICHENG“CAOSHENG”。

乐仑彩票XINGSHUSHIJIEYUKAISHUYUCAOSHUZHIJIANDEYIZHONGSHUTI,DAYUECHUXIANZAIXIHANWANQIHEDONGHANCHUQI。WANGXIZHICHUANGZUOLEBEIYUWEI“TIANXIADIYIXINGSHU”DE《LANTINGXU》,YANZHENQINGCHUANGZUOLE“TIANXIADIERXINGSHU”《JIZHIWENGAO》,SUSHICHUANGZUOLE“TIANXIADISANXINGSHU”《HANSHITIE》。

2.我国书籍形态的演变

JINKE:JINKESHIZHIKEZAIQINGTONGQISHANGDEMINGWEN,TASHIZUIZAODESHUJIXINGSHIZHIYI。MINGWENDENEIRONGYIXUANYANGZHOUWANGGONGDE、JIZAIZHONGYAOSHIJIANWEIZHU。

SHIKE:SHIKESHIZHIKEZAISHITOUSHANGDEBEIWEN。XIANCUNZUIZAODESHIKEWENZISHICHUNQIUSHIDESHIGUWEN,QINEIRONGDOUSHISIYANSHI。

JIANCE:JIANCESHIZHONGGUOZAOQIDESHUJIXINGSHIZHIYI。ZAIZAOZHIJISHUFAMINGYIQIAN,ZHONGGUOGUDAISHUJIZHUYAOSHIYONGMOXIEZAIZHUMUJIANSHANG。RUOGANJIANBIANLIANQILAIJIAOZUO“CE”(YIXIEZUO“CE”),ZHEISHIXIANZAICHENG1BENSHUWEI1CESHUDEQIYUAN。

乐仑彩票BOSHU:SHIZHONGGUOGUDAIXIEZAIJUANBOSHANGDEWENSHU。BOSHUCHANSHENGYUCHUNQIUZHANGUOZHIJIAO,BOSHIYIZHONGSIZHIPIN。DONGHANSHIGUANGFANYUNYONG。

乐仑彩票ZHI:ZHIZAOZAIXIHANCHUNIANJIUYOUFAMING,KUODASHENGCHANSHIZAIDONGHANDECAILUNGAIJIN、TUIGUANGZAOZHISHUZHIHOU。DAOLIANGJINNANBEICHAOSHI,ZHIXIEBENSHENGXING。ZAITANGYIQIAN,XIEBENDEXINGSHISHIJUANZHOU。

乐仑彩票DIAOBANYINSHUA:DIAOBANYINSHUAQIYUZHONGTANG,ZUICHUSHICONGYINSHUALISHUHEFOJINGKAISHIDE。DUNHUANGFAXIANDE《JINGANGJING》SHIWOGUOFAXIANZUIGUDEYINSHUASHIWU。BEISONGRENZONGSHIQIBISHENGFAMINGLENIHUOZIBAN。

ZHONGGUOGUDAIKEJICHENGJIU

1.天文

乐仑彩票WOGUOSHIMUQIANSHIJIEGONGRENDEGUANYUTAIYANGHEIZIZUIZAOJILUDEGUOJIA。EROUZHOUZHEIFANGMIANDEZUIZAODEJILUSHIZAIGONGYUAN807NIAN,BIZHONGGUOWANLEBAGESHIJI。CHUCIZHIWAI,WOGUODUIXINXING、CHAOXINXING、RISHI、YUESHIDEJILU,YESHISHIJIESHANGZUIZAOHEZILIAOZUIFENGFUDE。

ZHONGGUOZAOZAIWULIUQIANNIANYIQIAN,JIUYIJINGCHUANGZHILESHIJIESHANGZUIZAODECETIANYIQI,JIHUNYI。SONGDAITIANWENXUEJIASUSONGSHEJIDESHUIYUNYIXIANGTAI,SHENKUOGAIZONGHEXINGWEIFENGONGXING,YUANDAIGUOSHOUJINGYU1276NIANZHICHENGLEJIANHUADEHUNYI——JIANYI。

2.古代干支纪年法

乐仑彩票WOGUOGUDAIYIGANZHIJIRI。SUOWEIGANZHIJIUSHIGANZHI,JIYITIANWEIGAN,YIDIWEIZHI,YESHIYIZHONGTIANDIYINYANGGUANNIANDEBIAOXIAN。TIANGANSHIGE:JIA、YI、BING、DING、WU、JI、GENG、XIN、REN、GUI。DIZHISHIERGE:ZI、CHOU、YIN、MAO、CHEN、SI、WU、WEI、SHEN、YOU、XU、HAI。TIANGANHEDIZHIYICIZUHEWEILIUSHIGEDANWEI,QIZUHEFANGFASHITIANGANDEDANSHUPEIDIZHIDEDANSHU,TIANGANDESHUANGSHUPEIDIZHIDESHUANGSHU,CONGJIAZISHI,ZHIGUIHAIZHI,CHENGWEI“LIUSHIJIAZI”。LIUSHIJIAZIZHOUERFUSHI,XUNHUANBUDUAN。GANZHIJIRIFACONGYINSHANGZHONGYEYIZHIYONGDAOGONGYUAN1911NIAN,SHISHIJIESHANGSHIYONGSHIJIANZUIZHANGDEJIRIFANGFA。

XIANGJIE:

乐仑彩票TIANGAN:JIA、YI、BING、DING、WU、JI、GENG、XIN、REN、GUI。

DIZHI:ZI、CHOU、YIN、MAO、CHEN、SI、WU、WEI、SHEN、YOU、XU、HAI。

(1)GANZHIJINIAN:YONG“TIANGAN”HE“DIZHI”YIYIXIANGPEILAIJINIANDEFANGFA。QITEDIANSHI:

乐仑彩票A、TIANGANHEDIZHIGEYIWEIZUCHENGYIGEJINIAN,RU“JIAZINIAN”、“YICHOUNIAN”DENG。

B、TIANGANHEDIZHIDEXIANGPEIYONGYUANSHIDANSHUDUIDANSHU、SHUANGSHUDUISHUANGSHU,BUKENENGCHUXIANQIOUXIANGZUHE。

乐仑彩票C、60NIANYIXUNHUAN,ZHOUERFUSHI。

(2)NIANHAOJINIAN:CONGHANWUDIQI,DIWANGJIWEIDOUYOUNIANHAO,HOUJIUYONGDIWANGNIANHAOLAIJINIAN。 RU:KANGXIYUANNIANDENG。

乐仑彩票*NIANHAOJINIANHEGANZHIJINIANKEJIANYONG,RU:SHUNZHIERNIANYIYOUSIYUE

(3)WANGGONGNIANCIJINIAN:YONGYUCHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIDAIDEYIZHONGJINIANFANGFA,RU:ZHAOHUIWENWANGSHILIUNIAN。

[XIANGGUANZHISHI]SHIERSHENGXIAO:ZISHU、CHOUNIU、YINHU、MAOTU、CHENLONG、SISHE、WUMA、WEIYANG、SHENHOU、YOUJI、XUGOU、HAIZHU

3.农业

《FANSHENGZHISHU》,XIHANFANSHENGZHISUOZHE。BENSHUZONGJIELEWOGUOGUDAIHUANGHELIUYULAODONGRENMINDENONGYESHENGCHANJINGYAN,JISHULEGENGZUOYUANZEHEZUOWUZAIPEIJISHU,DUICUJINWOGUONONGYESHENGCHANDEFAZHANCHANSHENGLESHENYUANYINGXIANG。《FANSHENGZHISHU》YIBANBEIRENWEISHIWOGUOZUIZAODEYIBUNONGSHU。

《QIMINYAOSHU》,BEIWEIJIASIXIESUOZHE。TASHIYIBUZONGHEXINGNONGSHU,YESHISHIJIENONGXUESHISHANGZUIZAODEZHUANZHEZHIYI,SHIZHONGGUOXIANCUNDEZUIWANZHENGDENONGSHU。SHUMINGZHONGDE“QIMIN”ZHIPINGMINBAIXING,“YAOSHU”ZHIMOUSHENGFANGFA。《QIMINYAOSHU》XITONGDIZONGJIELEGONGYUAN6SHIJIYIQIANHUANGHELIUYUDENONGMUYESHENGCHANJINGYAN,CHANSHULEGUDAIYINDIZHIYI、BAOSHANGSHIFEIDEFANGFA,DUIZHONGGUOGUDAIHANZUNONGXUEDEFAZHANCHANSHENGLEZHONGDAYINGXIANG。

乐仑彩票SIDASHUILIGONGCHENG:SICHUANDOUJIANGYAN、XINJIANGKANERJING、JINGHANGDAYUNHE、XINGANLINGQU。

JIASIXIE:BEIWEISHIQINONGXUEJIA。DAIBIAOZUO:《QIMINYAOSHU》,SHIYIBUZONGHEXINGNONGSHU,SHIZHONGGUOXIANCUNDEZUIWANZHENGDENONGSHU,YESHISHIJIENONGXUESHISHANGZUIZAODEZHUANZHEZHIYI。

XUGUANGQI:《NONGZHENGQUANSHU》,ZAINONGXUEYICHANFANGMIANJIFUSHENGMING。

乐仑彩票SONGYINGXING:MINGDAIJIECHUKEXUEJIA。DAIBIAOZUO:《TIANGONGKAIWU》,SHISHIJIESHANGDIYIBUGUANYUNONGYEHESHOUGONGYESHENGCHANDEZONGHEXINGZHEZUO,BEIWAIGUOXUEZHECHENGWEI“ZHONGGUO17SHIJIDEGONGYIBAIKEQUANSHU”。

乐仑彩票SHENKUO:BEISONGKEXUEJIA。DAIBIAOZUO:《MENGXIBITAN》,BEIYINGGUOXUEZHELIYUESEYUWEI“ZHONGGUOKEXUESHISHANGDEZUOBIAO”。

4.数学

YINSHANGSHIYIJINGYOULESIZEYUNSUAN,CHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIZHENGZHENGSHUCHENGFAKOUJUE“JIUJIUGE”YIXINGCHENG,CONGCI“JIUJIUGE”CHENGWEIPUJISHUXUEZHISHIDEJICHUZHIYI,YIZHIYANXUZHIJIN。

乐仑彩票GOUGUDINGLIXIANGCHUANSHIZAISHANGDAIYOUSHANGGAOFAXIAN,BIBIDAGELASIZAO500DUONIAN。

乐仑彩票《JIUZHANGSUANSHU》DECHUXIAN,BIAOZHIZHEYICHOUSUANWEIJICHUDEZHONGGUOGUDAISHUXUETIXIDEZHENGSHIXINGCHENG。

5.医学

①ZHONGYISIDAJINGDIAN

② GUDAIYIXUECHENGJIU

ZHANGUOSHIQIDEMINGYIBIANQUE,CAIYONG“WANGWENWENQIE”SIZHENFAZHENDUANJIBING,HOUSHIZUNWEI“MAIXUEZHIZONG”。

乐仑彩票DONGHANMONIANZHANGZHONGJING,HOURENZUNWEI“YISHENG”,ZHEYOU《SHANGHANZABINGLUN》。

TANGDAISUNSIMIAOZHEYOU《QIANJINFANG》,HOUSHICHENGWEIYAOWANG。

TANGGAOZONGSHIBIAN《TANGBENCAO》,SHISHIJIESHANGZUIZAOYOUGUOJIABIANDINGHEBANBUDEYAODIAN。

MINGDAILISHIZHENBIANZHELEZHONGYIXUEJUZHE《BENCAOGANGMU》。

乐仑彩票ZHANGUOBIANQUEHEXIHANCHUNYUYI,SHIZAOQIJIECHUYIXUEJIADEDAIBIAO。CHENGYU“BINGRUGAOHUANG”HE“HUIJIJIYI”,DOUCHUYUBIANQUEZHIBINGDEGUSHI,ERCHUNYUYIZEZAIZHONGGUOYIXUESHISHANGSHOUCHUANGBINGLI。DONGHANZHANGZHONGJINGZHE《SHANGHANZABINGLUN》,TICHULE“SIZHEN”、“LIUJINGBIANZHENG”、“BAGANGBIANZHENG”DENGYUANZEHEFANGFA。DONGHANMINGYIHUATUOFAMINGQUANSHENMAZUIJI“MAFEISAN”。HANDAIDE《SHENNONGBENCAOJING》SHIZHONGGUODIYIBUYAOWUXUEZHEZUO,SHOULUGEZHONGYAOWU365ZHONG。GONGYUAN659NIANTANGZHENGFUZUZHISUJINGDENGRENXIUCHENG《XINXIUBENCAO》,SHOULU844ZHONGYAO,SHIZHONGGUOYESHISHIJIESHANGDIYIBUYOUGUOJIABANXINGDEYAODIAN。TANGDAIMINGYISUNSIMIAO,XIANHOUBIANCHENG《QIANJINYAOFANG》HE《QIANJINYIFANG》,SHEJIZHONGYIBAIKE,BEICHENGWEIZHONGYIBAIKESHIDEJUZHE。MINGDAILISHIZHENDE《BENCAOGANGMU》,SHOULUYAOWU1892ZHONG,YIFANG11096GE,ZONGJIELEGONGYUAN16SHIJIYIQIANZHONGGUODEYAOXUECHENGJIU。TABUJINDUIZHONGGUOYIYAOXUEHEZIRANKEXUEZUOCHULEZHONGDAGONGXIAN,ERQIEZAIHAIWAIYECHANSHENGLEJUDAYINGXIANG。

GUDAIJIAOYU

启蒙教育:中国古代教育的起源,可以追溯到夏、商、西周以前。自古以来中国人十分注重启蒙教育,优秀的启蒙读物有《三字经》、《百家姓》、《千字文》、《千家诗》、《弟子规》等。

国学:西周的学校分为国学和乡学两种。国学是中央设立的学校,有大学和小学之分。国学包括了德、行、艺、仪四个方面,具体内容则为六艺:礼、乐、射、御、书、数。

私学:商周两代的学校教育,都是由国家来管理的,即古书中说的“学在官府”。春秋时期产生了私学,最早的私学创立者是孔子。孔子以后,官学和私学并重,形成了中国古代教育的双轨制。

官学:汉代的官学中有中央政府主办的太学和鸿都门学,也有地方政府主办的郡国学和校、庠、序等。中国历史上正式设立的第一所大学是始于汉武帝时的太学,以五经博士为教官。太学,西汉时期出现的专门传授知识、研究学问的机构,汉武帝时设在长安,是中国当时的最高学府;太学的课程是通经致用为主,学生分经受业,经考试及格,任用为官吏。博士是指汉代太学里选聘的学优德劭者担任的教授,其学生为博士弟子。鸿都门学是汉灵帝时设立的一所专科性质的学校,主要学习辞赋书画。

书院:宋初四大书院有:河南登封市的嵩阳书院、湖南长沙市的岳麓书院、河南商丘市的睢阳书院(应天府书院)、江西庐山的白鹿洞书院。南宋四大书院有:张栻主持的岳麓书院、朱熹主持的白鹿洞书院(第一个完整系统的书院学规是由朱熹制定的《白鹿洞学规》)、吕祖谦主持的丽泽书院、陆九渊主持的象山书院。

科举制度:隋炀帝在考试科目中设进士科,是科举制的真正开始。唐代的考试主要分为常科和制科两种。常科的考试报考人数最多的两科是明经和进士。宋太祖建立了殿试制度。至宋太宗时又将殿试录取的进士按三等发榜,称为三甲。明清的科举考试有四级,分别为院试、乡试、会试、殿试。

【MINGQINGKEJUKAOSHI(QIYUSUIDAI,SHENGYUMINGQING,QINGGUANGXU31NIANFEIZHI)】

(1)等级:

YUANSHI(YOUJIAO“TONGSHI”,XIANJIKAOSHI ,TONGSHENGCANJIA,KAOSHANGWEI“SHENGYUAN”,JI“XIUCAI”。)

乐仑彩票XIANGSHI(YOUJIAO“QIUWEI”,SHENGJIKAOSHI,SHENGYUANCANJIA,KAOSHANGWEI“JUREN”。)

HUISHI(YOUJIAO“CHUNWEI”,GUOJIAJIKAOSHI,JURENCANJIA,KAOSHANGWEI“GONGSHI”。)

DIANSHI(GUOJIAJIKAOSHI,HUANGDIZHUKAO,GONGSHICANJIA,KAOSHANGWEI“JINSHI”。QIZHONG,DIYIMINGJIAO“ZHUANGYUAN” DIERMINGJIAO“BANGYAN”,DISANMINGJIAO“TANHUA”)

(2)内容:乐仑彩票四书五经等,规定文章格式为“八股文”。

GUDAIYISHU

1.建筑

乐仑彩票ZHONGGUOGUDAIJIANZHUZHUYAOFENWEISIDALEIXING:GONGDIAN、LINGMU、SIMIAO、YUANLIN。CONGYUANGUDAODONGHAN,YIGONGTINGJIANZHUTIXIWEIZHU,DONGJINHOUCHUXIANSHIDAFUDESIJIAYUANLIN,NANBEICHAOHOUCHUXIANDALIANGSIMIAOJIANZHU。GONGDIANJIANZHUYOUSIDATEDIAN:GAO、DA、SHEN、ZHUANG。ZHONGGUOSIMIAOJIANZHUZUIZAOJIANYUJIZAIDESHIDONGHANYONGPINGNIANJIANJIANLIDELUOYANGBAIMASI。ZHONGGUOYUANLINKEYIZHUISUDAOXIZHOUCHUDEYUANYOUTAICHI。XIANCUNZUIWANZHENGDESHANSHUIYUANYOUYOUBEIJINGDEYIHEYUANHECHENGDEBISHUSHANZHUANG。

民居:乐仑彩票北京的“四合院”、上海的“石库门”、广东的“围村”、陕西的“窑洞”、福建的“土楼”等民居建筑都与当地的自然环境息息相关,具有鲜明的地域文化特色,是中华民族共有的文化财富。

ZHONGGUOBEIFANGYUANLUOMINJUYIBEIJINGSIHEYUANZUIWEIDIANXING。BEIFANGMINJUDEDAIBIAOHAIYOUSHANBEIYAODONG,SHANNANDESHITOUFANG、ZHUMUFANG、DIAOJIAOLOU。QIZHONGSHANXIMINJUZHONGZUIJUDAIBIAOXINGDESHIPINGYAOGUCHENG。TAWANHAODIBAOCUNZHEMINGQINGSHIQIDEFENGMAO,SUYOU“ZHONGGUOGUDAIMINJUJIANZHUDEHUICUIHEBAOKU”ZHICHENG。

WANNANMINJUSHIZHONGGUONANFANGMINJUDEDAIBIAO。WANNANMINJUYIYIXIANXIDI、HONGCUNZUIJUDAIBIAOXING,BEIYUWEI“ZHONGGUOHUALIXIANGCUN”。DAIBIAOHUIPAIMINJUJIANZHUFENGGEDE“SANJUE”(MINJU、CITANG、PAIFANG)HE“SANDIAO”(MUDIAO、SHIDIAO、ZHUANDIAO),ZAICIDEDAOWANHAODEBAOLIU。QINGWA、BAIQIANGSHIHUIPAIJIANZHUDETUCHUYINXIANG。

2.雕塑

乐仑彩票ZHONGGUODEDIAOSUZHUYAOYOUSIGEJIQUNZUCHENG:YISHILINGMUJIQUN,BAOKUOLINGMUBIAOSHI、MUSHIDIAOSHIHEMINGQIYISHU;ERSHIZONGJIAOJIQUN,JIFOJIAOSIMIAOHEFOJIAOSHIKULIDESUXIANG、FUDIAO;SANSHIJIANZHUZHUANGSHI;SISHIGONGYIDIAOSU。

3.书法

乐仑彩票SHUFAZUOWEIYIMENYISHU,CONGHANMOWEIJINKAISHI,ZHEISHICHUXIANLEZHUANMENDESHUFAJIA。ZHONGGUOSHUFACONGZIXINGSHANGFENWEIZHUAN、LI、CAO、KAI、XINGWULEI。ZHONGGUOZUIWEIDADESHUFAYISHUJIASHIWANGXIZHI、YANZHENQING、ZHANGXU,QIDAIBIAOZUOFENBIESHI《LANTINGXU》(XINGSHU)、《YANQINLIBEI》(KAISHU)HE《GUSHISITIE》(CAOSHU)。

4.绘画

WEIJINLIUCHAOSHIZHONGGUOHUIHUADEXINGCHENGSHIQI。ZHONGGUOGUDAIHUIHUAZHONGDERENWUHUAYIGUKAIZHIWEIDAIBIAO;SHANSHUIHUAYIZONGBING、WANGWEIWEIDAIBIAO;ZONGJIAOBIHUAYIDUNHUANGBIHUAWEIDAIBIAO。

LIUCHAOSANJIE:ZHIZAIZHONGGUOHUIHUASHISHANGLIUCHAOSHIQIZHUMINGDESANWEISHUHUAJIA,JIDONGJINGUKAIZHI、NANCHAOSONGLUTANWEI、NANCHAOLIANGZHANGSENGZHOUSANWEIDAJIA。QIZHONGGUKAIZHIYINHUAJUE、CAIJUE、CHIJUEBEICHENGWEI“SANJUE”,ZUOPINYOU《NVSHIZHENTUJUAN》HE《LUOSHENFUTUJUAN》,BINGZONGJIECHU“CHUANSHENXIEZHAO,ZHENGZAIADUZHONG”DEHUIHUALILUN。“HUALONGDIANJING”SHIZHANGSENGZHOUDEGUSHI,TACHUANGZAOLEYIZHONGZHIYONGCAISEERBUYONGMOGUDE“MEIGUFA”。

乐仑彩票TANGDAIHUIHUA:TANGCHUZHUMINGHUAJIAYOUYANPI、YANLIDE、YANLIBENFUZISANREN,QIZHONGYIYANLIBENCHENGJIUZUIGAO,JINCUNZUOPINYOU《LIDAIDIWANGTUJUAN》、《BUNIANTU》DENG。BEICHENGWEI“HUASHENG”DEWUDAOZI,SHITANGDAIZHONGQIZUIJIECHUDEHUAJIA,ZHUYAOCHUANGZUOBIHUA,ZUOPINYOU《DIYUBIANXIANGTU》、《SONGZITIANWANGTUJUAN》DENG,BINGFAZHANLE“XIANMIAO”,CHUANGZAOLE“LANYEMIAO”DEXIANXING,FENGFULEXIANTIAOZAIZHONGGUOHUAZHONGDEBIAOXIANLI。ZHANGXUANHEZHOUFANG,HUAGUIZUSHENGHUO,XINGCHENGLESHINVHUAZHEIYIHUAKE。ZHANGXUANDE《GUOGUOFURENYOUCHUNTU》、ZHOUFANGDE《ZANHUASHINVTU》SHIDAIBIAOZUO。

乐仑彩票HUANIAOHUA:WUDAISHIHUANIAOHUADECHENGSHUJIEDUAN。WUDAIDEXISHUHUAJIAHUANGQUAN、HUANGJUCAIFUZIDEHUANIAOHUACAIYONGGOUXIANTIANSEDEJIFA,CHENGWEI“GOULEFA”,QIHUAFENGCHENGWEI“HUANGTI”,YANBIANWEIHOUSHIDEGONGBIHUA。

乐仑彩票YUANTIHUA:SONGDAIZAIGONGNEISHELILEHANLINTUHUAYUAN,YIKEJUKAOSHIXISHOUHUAJIA,XINGCHENG“YUANTIHUA”,QITEDIANSHIYANMIJINGXI,ZHUZHONGFADU,ZUOPINDUOGONGDIWANGGUANSHANG,TICAIDUOWEISHANSHUI、HUANIAO,DAIBIAORENWUYOUSONGHUIZONGZHAOJI,QIZUOPINYOU《FURONGJINJITU》。

5.音乐

乐仑彩票ZHONGGUOJICHUANGLILEQIYINJIETIXI,YECHUANGLILEWUYINJIETIXI,YIHOUZHEDIWEIWEIGAO。WUYINSHIZHONGGUOGUDAIWUGEYINJIEDEZONGCHENG,JIGONG、SHANG、JIAO、ZHI、YU,XIANGDANGYUXIANDAIYINLEDE1、2、3、5、6。CHANGYI“WUYINBUQUAN”XINGRONGMOURENBUSHANCHANGGE。WUYINLILUNZAICHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIYIJINGXINGCHENG。HOULAIZAIJIAOZHI、YUGONGZHIJIANGECHUYIGEPIANYIN,JIXIANDAIYINLEZHONGDE4、7,PAICHENGQIGEYINJIEWEIGONG、SHANG、JIAO、QINGJIAO、ZHI、YU、RUN。

乐仑彩票LEQI:ZHONGGUOGUDAIDELEQIFENWEICHUI、LA、DAN、DASIDALEI,FENBIEYOUJIN、SHI、TU、MU、PAO、GE、SI、ZHUBAZHONGCAILIAOZHICHENG,SHICHENG“BAYIN”。

JINGJU:JINGJUSHIZHONGHUAMINZUDEGUOCUI。TASHIZAI18SHIJIXIABANYEJINGHUIXI、QINQIANG、HANDIAODEJIAORONG,BINGJIEJIANXISHOUKUNQU、JINGQIANGZHIZHANGERXINGCHENGDE。

ZHONGGUOGUDAIZONGJIAO

1.道教

DAOJIAOSHIZAIZHONGGUOBENTUSHANGCHANSHENGDEZONGJIAO。DAOJIAODEZHUYAOSIXIANGYUANYUANYOUSANGE:YISHIZHONGGUOGUDAIDEGUIHUNCHONGBAI;ERSHIZHANGUOYILAIDESHENXIANFANGSHU;SANSHIQINHANSHIQIDEHUANGLAODAO。DAOJIAODEJIBENXINYANGSHI“DAO”,YOUDAOJIAJINGDIAN《DAODEJING》ERLAI,ZHUZHANGDAOSHIYUZHOUWANWUZHIBENYUAN,TONGSHIYOUSHILINGERYOUXINGDESHENYIZHIWU。DAOJIAOXINFENGDEZUIGAOSHENSHISANQINGZUNSHEN,ZUIZHONGMUBIAOSHIDEDAOCHENGXIAN。

2.佛教

ZHONGGUODEFOJIAOSHIWAILAIZONGJIAO,LAIZIYINDU,CHUANGSHIRENSHIQIAODAMO·XIDADUO。FOJIAOYOUSIDI:KU、JI、MIE、DAO。FOJIAODEXIUXINGFANGFASHIJIE、DING、HUI。FOJIAOYUANXIANBIJIAOZHUZHONGGERENDEJIETUO,HOULAIZHUJIANFAZHANWEIQIANGDIAO“CIBEIPUDU”。GONGYUAN12SHIJIZUOYOU,FOJIAOZAIYINDUKUIMIE,SHIJIEFOJIAOZHONGXINYIDAOZHONGGUO。CIQIAN,FOJIAOZAILIANGHANZHIJIJIUYICHUANRUZHONGGUO,DONGHANMINGDISHIJINGSICHOUZHILUZHENGSHICHUANRUZHONGGUO。

3.伊斯兰教

YIBANRENWEIYISILANJIAOSHIZAITANGCHAOYONGHUIERNIANCONGALABOCHUANRUZHONGGUODEQUANZHOU、GUANGZHOUDENGDI。YISILANJIAOZAIZHONGGUOYOUJIAOHUIJIAO、TIANFANGJIAO、QINGZHENJIAO,QIJIAOTUCHENGWEIMUSILIN,CHAOBAIZHONGXINSHIMAIJIADEKEERBAIMIAO。YISILANJIAOYUGONGYUAN7SHIJICHUCHANSHENGYUALABOBANDAO,HOULAILIUXINGYUYAZHOUDALUHEFEIZHOUDEDAPIANDIQU。CHUANGSHIRENWEIMUHANMODE。YISILANJIAODEJIAOYIJIZHONGZAIGAIJIAOXINFENGDE《GULANJING》LI,RENWEIANLASHIWEIYIDESHEN。

FENGSU

1.饮茶

SHIJIEYINCHAFAYUANYUZHONGGUO。ZHONGGUOYINCHASHISHANGDEYIJIANDASHI,SHITANGDAICHUXIANDELUYUDE《CHAJING》。ZHEISHIWOGUOZUIZAODEYIBUCHAYEZHUANZHE。TAZONGJIELETANGDAIYIQIANZHONGCHAYINCHADEJINGYAN,TADECHUXIANBIAOZHIZHEYINCHAWENHUADEJINBUYUZHUANBIAN。YOUYUZHEIYIGONGXIAN,LUYUBEICHENGWEI“CHASHENG”、“CHAXIAN”。

2.民族节日

【GUDAIZHUYAOJIERI】

YUANRI:ZHENGYUECHUYI,YINIANKAISHI

乐仑彩票RENRI:ZHENGYUECHUQI,ZHUXIAOHAI

乐仑彩票SHANGYUAN:ZHENGYUESHIWU,ZHANGDENGWEIXI,YOUJIAO“DENGJIE”,HUOCHENG“YUANXIAOJIE”。QIYUANYUGUDAIDEJISIYIFENG,GENTIANDICHONGBAIYOUYIDINGGUANXI。

SHERI:CHUNFENQIANHOU,JISIQIDAONONGSHI

乐仑彩票HANSHI:QINGMINGQIANYIRI,JINHUOSANRI(JINIANJIEZITUI)

乐仑彩票QINGMING:SIYUECHU,SAOMU、JISI,QINGMINGJIEDEXISUSHIFENGFUYOUQUDE,CHULEJIANGJIUJINHUO、SAOMU,HAIYOUTAQING、DANGQIUQIAN、CUJU、DAMAQIU、CHALIUDENGYIXILIEFENGSUTIYUHUODONG。YINCI,ZHEIGEJIERIZHONGJIYOUJISAOXINFENSHENGLISIBIEDEBEISUANLEI,YOUYOUTAQINGYOUWANDEHUANXIAOSHENG,SHIYIGEFUYOUTESEDEJIERI。

乐仑彩票DUANWU:WUYUECHUWU,CHIZONGZI,HUALONG(JINIANQUYUAN)。JUYOUGUANSHIJIJIZAI,DUANWUJIEZAIQINHANJIANJIUYIJINGXINGCHENG。DUANWUJIEYOUCHIZONGZI,SAILONGZHOU,GUACHANGPU、HAOCAO、AIYE,XUNCANGSHU、BAIZHI,HEXIONGHUANGJIUDEXISU。“DUANWUJIE”WEIGUOJIAFADINGJIEJIARIZHIYI,BINGBEILIERUSHIJIEFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANMINGLU。

QIXI:QIYUECHUQI,FUNVQIQIAO(NIULANGZHINV)

ZHONGYUAN:QIYUESHIWU,JISIGUISHEN,YOUJIAO“GUIJIE”

ZHONGQIU:BAYUESHIWU,SHANGYUE,SIXIANG。TASHIYUTANGCHAOCHUNIAN,SHENGXINGYUSONGCHAO,ZHIMINGQINGSHI,YICHENGWEIZHONGGUODEZHUYAOJIERIZHIYI。2006NIAN5YUE20RI,ZHONGQIUJIEJINGGUOWUYUANPIZHUNLIERUDIYIPIGUOJIAJIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANMINGLU,ZI2008NIANQIZHONGQIUJIEBEILIEWEIGUOJIAFADINGJIEJIARI。

ZHONGYANG:YOUCHENG“TAQIU”,JIUYUECHUJIU,DENGGAO,CHAZHUYUMIANZAI,WEIZHONGGUOCHUANTONGSIDAJIZUDEJIERI。ZHONGYANGZHEITIANSUOYOUQINRENDOUYAOYIQIDENGGAO“BIZAI”,CHAZHUYU、SHANGJUHUA。

DONGZHI:YOUJIAO“ZHIRI”,JIEQIDEQIDIAN

乐仑彩票LARI:LAYUECHUBA,HE“LABAZHOU”

乐仑彩票CHUXI:YINIANDEZUIHOUYITIANDEWANSHANG,CHUJIUYINGXIN

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