YIGEGUOJIAZHIYOUYIGESHOUDOU,ZHEISHIHENDUORENXINZHONGDEZHUNZE,LIRUMEIGUODESHOUDOUSHIHUASHENGDUNGELUNBIYATEQU,DEGUODESHOUDOUBOLIN,DANSHI,SHIJIESHANGYOUGEGUOJIATADESHOUDOUSHISANGE,ZHEIJIUSHINANFEI,YONGYOUSANGESHOUDOUDEGUOJIA,FENBIESHIXINGZHENGSHOUDOUCIWANEI,LIFASHOUDOUKAIPUDUNHESIFASHOUDOUBULONGFANGDAN,GANQINGSHISANQUANFENLIYA!NANDAOSHIWEILEXIANGHUZHIHENG,MINGMINGYIGECHENGSHIJIUKEYIJIEJUEDEWENTI,WEISHENMEFEIYAOYONGSANGECHENGSHINI?

SANGESHOUDOUQISHISHILISHIYILIUWENTI,ZUIZAODESHIHOUNANFEISHISHUYUYINGGUODEZHIMINTONGZHIZHIXIA,YINGGUORENJUEDEHAOJIGECHENGSHIZAIGUANLISHANGBUSHIHENFANGBIAN,YUSHIJIUXIANGZHESHUOBAKAIPUGONGHEGUO、NATAERGONGHEGUO、DELANSHIWAGONGHEGUOHEAOLANZHIGONGHEGUOSIGEGUOJIAHEBINGZAIYIQI,RANHOUCHENGLINANFEILIANBANG。

乐仑彩票XIAMIAN,WOMENYIQILAIZOURUZHEIGEYONGYOUSANGESHOUDOUDEGUOJIA。

NANFEIDICHUNANBANQIUFEIZHOUDALUDEZUINANDUAN,YOU“CAIHONGZHIGUO”ZHIMEIYU,LUDIMIANJIWEI121.9WANPINGFANGGONGLI,QIDONG、NAN、XISANMIANBEIYINDUYANGHEDAXIYANGHUANBAO,HAIANXIANZHANGYUE3000GONGLI,CHENGWEIMINGFUQISHIDE“LIANGYANGGUOJIA”。DICHULIANGDAYANGJIANDEHANGYUNYAOSAI,QIXINANDUANDEHAOWANGJIAOHANGXIANLILAISHISHIJIESHANGZUIFANMANGDEHAISHANGTONGDAOZHIYI,SHIOUYAZHIJIANBUKEHUOQUEDEZHONGYAOTONGDAO,ZHANLVEWEIZHIFEICHANGZHONGYAO。

一、南非概况

1、热带高原之国

乐仑彩票QUANGUOJINGNEIDABUFENQUYUWEIHAIBA600MIYISHANGGAOYUAN。XIBEIBUWEISHAMO,SHIKALAHALIPENDIDEYIBUFEN,BEIBU、ZHONGBUHEXINANBUWEIGAOYUAN,YANHAISHIXIAZHAIDEPINGYUAN。NANFEIGAOYUANSHIBEIQISAHALADEFEIZHOUGAOYUANXIANGNANYANSHENDEZHONGDUAN。GAOYUANDEDONGCEWAIYUANSHIDOUQIAODEDELAKENSISHANMAI,SHANMAIYIDONGSHISHIRUNDEYAREDAIQIHOUQU。

乐仑彩票NANFEIQIHOUDUOYANG,DONGBEIBUDELAKENSISHANMAIYANHAISHIYAREDAIQIHOU,XINANBUKAIPUPINGYUANWEIDIZHONGHAIXINGQIHOU,DONGBUGAOSHANYOUJIANGXUEDEDONGTIAN,XIBEIBUSHAMOGANHANYANRE,DONGXIWENCHADAYUNANBEIWENCHA。QUANGUODABUFENDIQUSHUREDAICAOYUANQIHOU,QUANGUO2/3YISHANGDEGUOTUQIHOUGANHAN。

乐仑彩票YOUYUZHOUQIXINGGANHAN,NANFEIZHIYOU1/4DIQUDEHELIUQUANNIANYOUSHUI,JINGNEIDEZHUYAOHELIUYOULIANGTIAO,LINBOBOHEYUAOLANZHIHE。

2、人文多样之国

NANFEIRENKOU5496WAN。FENHEIREN、YOUSEREN、BAIRENHEYAYISIDAZHONGZU,FENBIEZHANZONGRENKOUDE79.6%、9%、 8.9%HE2.5%。HEIRENZHUYAOYOUZULU、KESA、SIWEISHI、CIWANA、BEISUOTUO、NANSUOTUO、CONGJIA、WENDA、ENDEBEILAI9GEBUZU,ZHUYAOSHIYONGBANTUYU。BAIRENZHUYAOWEIAFEILIKAREN(YIHELANYIWEIZHU,RONGHEFAGUO、DEGUOYIMINXINGCHENGDEFEIZHOUBAIRENMINZU)HEYINGYIBAIREN,YUYANWEIAFEILIKAYUHEYINGYU。YOUSERENZHUYAOSHIBAIRENTONGDANGDIHEIRENSUOSHENGDEHUNXUERENZHONG,ZHUYAOSHIYONGAFEILIKAYU。YAYIRENZHUYAOSHIYINDUREN(ZHANJUEDADUOSHU)HEHUAREN。YOU11ZHONGGUANFANGYUYAN,YINGYUHEAFEILIKAYUWEITONGYONGYUYAN。YUE80%DERENKOUXINYANGJIDUJIAO。

3、资源丰富之国

乐仑彩票KUANGCHANZIYUANFENGFU,SHISHIJIEWUDAKUANGCHANZIYUANGUOZHI YI。XIANYITANMINGCHULIANGBINGKAICAIDEKUANGCHANYOU70YUZHONG。BOZUJINSHU、FUSHI、GEDECHULIANGJUSHIJIEDIYIWEI,HUANGJIN、FAN、MENG、GAOJUDIERWEI,TAIJUDISIWEI,LINSUANYANKUANG、YOU、QIAN、TIJUDIWUWEI,MEI、XINJUDIBAWEI。

乐仑彩票GENJUNANFEIKUANGYEBUTONGJISHUJU,2011NIANYITANMINGDEKUANGZANGCHULIANG:HUANGJIN6000DUN(ZHANSHIJIEZONGCHULIANGDE11.8%,XIATONG),BOZUJINSHU 6.3WANDUN(95.5%),MENG1.5YIDUN(23.8%),FAN364WANDUN(26%),ZHISHI1400WANDUN,GE31YIDUN(85%),YOU29.5WANDUN (5.5%),MEI301.56YIDUN(3.5%),TAI7130WANDUN(10.3%),GAO1400WANDUN(27%),FUSHI4100WANDUN(17.1%),LINSUANYAN15 YIDUN(2.1%),TI2.1WANDUN(1.2%),QIAN30WANDUN(2.1%),XIN1400WANDUN(3.3%),TONG1100WANDUN(1.6%)。

KUANGYELISHIYOUJIU,JUYOUWANBEIDEXIANDAIKUANGYETIXIHEXIANJINDEKAI CAIYELIANJISHU,SHINANFEIJINGJIDEZHIZHUZHIYI。2014NIANCHANZHIYUEZHANGUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHIDE8%。KUANGCHANPINSHICHUKOUDEZHONGYAOGOUCHENGBUFEN,2014NIANKUANGCHANPINCHUKOUEYUEZHANCHUKOUZONGE28%。NANFEISHISHIJIESHANGZHONGYAODEHUANGJIN、BOZUJINSHUHEGESHENGCHANGUOHECHUKOUGUO。ZUANSHICHANLIANGYUEZHANSHIJIEDE9%。NANFEIDEBIERSIGONGSISHISHIJIESHANGZUIDADEZUANSHISHENGCHANHEXIAOSHOUGONGSI,ZONGZICHAN200YIMEIYUAN,QIYINGYEEYIDUZHANSHIJIEZUANSHIGONGYINGSHICHANG90%DEFENE,MUQIANRENGKONGZHIZHESHIJIECUZUANSHIMAOYIDE60%。

4、非洲发达之国

乐仑彩票NANFEISHUYUZHONGDENGSHOURUDEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIA,YESHIFEIZHOUJINGJIZUIFADADEGUOJIAZHIYI。ZIRANZIYUANSHIFENFENGFU。JINRONG、FALVTIXIBIJIAOWANSHAN,TONGXUN、JIAOTONG、NENGYUANDENGJICHUSHESHILIANGHAO。KUANGYE、ZHIZAOYE、NONGYEHEFUWUYEJUNJIAOFADA,SHIJINGJISIDAZHIZHU,SHENJINGCAIKUANGDENGJISHUJUYUSHIJIELINGXIANDIWEI。2016NIANGUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHIYUE2954YIMEIYUAN。

乐仑彩票ZHIZAOYE、JIANZHUYE、NENGYUANYEHEKUANGYESHINANFEIGONGYESIDABUMEN。ZHIZAOYEMENLEIQIQUAN,JISHUXIANJIN。ZHUYAOCHANPINYOUGANGTIE、JINSHUZHIPIN、HUAGONG、YUNSHUSHEBEI、JIQIZHIZAO、SHIPINJIAGONG、FANGZHI、FUZHUANG DENG。GANGTIEGONGYESHINANFEIZHIZAOYEDEZHIZHU,YONGYOULIUDAGANGTIELIANHEGONGSI、130DUOJIAGANGTIEQIYE。JINNIANLAI,FANGZHI、FUZHUANGDENGQUEFAJINGZHENGLIDEXINGYEWEISUO,QICHEZHIZAODENGXINXINGCHUKOUCHANYEFAZHANJIAOKUAI。

NENGYUANGONGYEJICHUXIONGHOU,JISHUJIAOXIANJIN。DIANLIGONGYEJIAOFADA,FADIANLIANGZHANQUANFEIZHOUDE2/3,QIZHONGYUE92%WEIHUOLIFADIAN。JINNIANLAIYOUYUDIANLISHENGCHANHEGUANLIZHIHOUDENGYUANYIN,QUANGUOXINGDIANLIDUANQUEXIANXIANGYANZHONG。ZAIKAIPUDUNFUJINJIANYOUFEIZHOUDALUWEIYIDEHEDIANZHAN——KUBEIHEHEDIANZHAN,FADIANNENGLI180WANQIANWA。

乐仑彩票NONGYEJIAOFADA,KEGENGDIYUEZHANTUDIMIANJIDE12%,DANSHIYUGENGZHONGDEGAOCHANTUDIJINZHAN22%。NONGYE、LINYE、YUYEJIUYERENSHUYUEZHANRENKOUDE7%,QICHANPINCHUKOUSHOURUZHANFEIKUANGYECHUKOUSHOURUDE 15%。NONGYESHENGCHANSHOUQIHOUBIANHUAYINGXIANGMINGXIAN。YUMISHIZUIZHONGYAODELIANGSHIZUOWU。GELEIGUANTOUSHIPIN、YAN、JIU、KAFEIHEYINLIAOCHANGXIAOHAIWAI。SHENGCHANHUAHUI、SHUIGUO,PUTAOJIUXIANGYOUSHENGYU。

乐仑彩票CHUMUYEJIAOFADA,ZHUYAOJIZHONGZAIXIBUSANFENZHIERDEGUOTU。SHENG CHUZHONGLEIZHUYAOBAOKUONIU、MIANYANG、SHANYANG、ZHUDENG,SUOXUROULEI85%ZIJI。MIANYANGMAOCHANLIANGKEGUAN,SHISHIJIEDI4DAMIANYANGMAOCHUKOUGUO。

乐仑彩票SHUICHANYANGZHIYECHANLIANGZHANQUANFEIZHOU5%。NANFEISHANGYEBULAOCHUANDUIYOUGEZHONGCHUANZHI500DUOSOU。ZHUYAOBULAOZHONGLEIWEIDANCAI、ZUNYU、MULIHEKAIPUWUXUXUE。MEINIANBULAOLIANGYUE58WANDUN,CHANZHIJIN20YILANTE。

5、贸易自由之国

NANFEISHIXINGZIYOUMAOYIZHIDU,SHISHIJIEMAOYIZUZHIDECHUANGSHIHUIYUANGUO。OUMENGYUMEIGUODENGSHINANFEICHUANTONGDEMAOYIHUOBAN,DANJINNIANYUYAZHOU、ZHONGDONGDENGDIQUDEMAOYIYEZAIBUDUANZENGZHANG。2016NIANNANFEIHUOWUJINCHUKOUEWEI1608YIMEIYUAN。CHUKOUCHANPINYOU:HUANGJIN,JINSHUJIJINSHUZHIPIN,ZUANSHI,SHIPIN、YINLIAOJIYANCAO,JIXIEJIJIAOTONGYUNSHUSHEBEIDENGZHICHENGPIN。ZHUYAOJINKOUJIXIESHEBEI,JIAOTONGYUNSHUSHEBEI,HUAGONGCHANPIN,SHIYOUDENG。

6、三个首都之国

NANFEISHISHIJIESHANGWEIYITONGSHIYONGYOUSANGESHOUDOUDEGUOJIA:XINGZHENGSHOUDOUCIWANEISHINANFEIZHONGYANGZHENGFUSUOZAIDI,RENKOUYUE292WAN;LIFASHOUDOUKAIPUDUNSHINANFEIGUOHUISUOZAIDI,SHIQUANGUODIERDACHENGSHIHEZHONGYAOGANGKOU,WEIYUXINANDUAN,WEIZHONGYAODEGUOJIHAIYUNHANGDAOJIAOHUIDIAN,RENKOUYUE374WAN;SIFASHOUDOUBULONGFANGDANWEIQUANGUOSIFAJIGOUDESUOZAIDI,RENKOUYUE75WAN。


茨瓦内原名比勒陀利亚(2005年3月7日改名),是南非行政首都,位于东北部高原的马加莱斯堡山谷地,跨林波波河支流阿皮斯河两岸。海拔1300米以上。年平均气温为17℃。建于1855年,以布尔人领袖比勒陀利乌斯名字命名,其子马尔锡劳斯是比勒陀利亚城的创建者,市内立有他们父子的塑像。1860年,它是布尔人建立的德兰士瓦共和国的首都。1900年,被英国占领。1910年起,成为白人南非联邦(1961年改为南非共和国)的行政首府。风光秀美,有“花园城”之称,街道两旁种植紫葳,又称“紫葳城”。

开普敦是南非立法首都,重要港口,好望角省首府。位于好望角北端的狭长地带,濒大西洋特布尔湾。始建于1652年,原为东印度公司供应站驻地,是西欧殖民者最早在南部非洲建立的据点,故有“南非诸城之母”之称,长期是荷兰、英国殖民者向非洲内陆扩张的基地。现为立法机关所在地。

布隆方丹是南非的司法首都,位于中部高原,为全国的地理中心,四周有小丘环绕,夏热,冬寒有霜。它最初为一堡垒,1846年正式建城。现为重要交通枢纽,南非奥兰治自然邦首府。布隆方丹一词,原意为“花之根源”。市内丘陵起伏,风景秀丽。

二、南非历史概况

乐仑彩票NANFEIZUIZAODETUZHUJUMINSHISANGREN、KEYIRENJIHOULAINANQIANDEBANTUREN。

1、荷兰建立开普敦殖民地

乐仑彩票1652NIAN4YUE,HELANCHUANZHANGYANG·FANLIBEIKEZAIZHEDIYIPI153MINGHELANYIMINDIDAHAOWANGJIAODEZHUOWAN,JIANLILENANFEIDEDIYIGEHELANZHIMINDIKAIPUDUN。

WEILEJIANLIXIANGSHANGCHUANGONGYINGCHANPINDENONGCHANGHEMUCHANG,HELANYIMINCONGHAOWANGJIAOXIANGNEIDIQIANYIKUOZHANG,QUANZHANTUZHURENDEDAPIANTUDI,QUGANDANGDIDETUZHUHEIRENLAODONG,ZIJICHENGWEINULIZHU。ZHEIXIEHELAN、FAGUOHEDEGUOYIMINDEHOUYIZHUJIANXINGCHENGTONGYIDEZHONGZU,CAOJIAZAFAYU、DEYU、MALAIYUHEKESAYUDEHELANWENFANGYAN,BEICHENGWEIBUERREN(Boer,YIWEI“NONGMIN”),DANQIZICHENGWEIAFEILIKAREN(YUANYIWEIFEIZHOUDINGJUZHE)。ZHI19SHIJIZHONGYE,DINGJUZAINANFEIDEHELANYIMINHOUYISHULIANGYIJINGDALIANGWANYIQIANREN,ZAISAHALAYINANFEIZHOUDEOUZHOUBAIRENDINGJUZHEZHONGDA24%。

2、英国占领开普敦殖民地

1795NIAN,FAGUOJUNDUIRUQINHELAN,YINGGUOSUIJIZHANLINGLEFAGUOHEHELANDEZHONGDUOHAIWAIZHIMINDI,HESHUKAIPUZHIMINDIYEBEIYINGJUNZHANLING。ZAI1814NIAN—1815NIANDEWEIYENAHEHUISHANG,YINGGUOZAIXIANGHELANZHIFULE600WANYINGBANGDEBUCHANGKUANHOU,BAKAIPUDIQUJUWEIJIYOU。

3、布尔人建立共和国

19SHIJI30NIANDAI,YINGGUORENXUANBUKAIPUZHIMINDIDETUDIWEI“HUANGJIATUDI”。1836NIANCHUNTIAN,DAPIDUIYINGGUOZHIMINZHENGCEGANDAOBUANHEBUMANDEBUERRENNONGCHANGZHUMENPAOQILEZIJIDEMUCHANG、FANGZI,JIAZHENIUCHE,GANZHESHENGKOU,DAIZHEQUANBUJIADANGHENULI,LIKAIYUANXIANJUZHUDIKAIPUDUN,KAISHIXIANGNANFEINEILUDIQUDEDAQIANXI。DAQIANXIDUANDUANXUXUCHIXULE4NIAN,CANJIADAQIANXIDEBUERJIATINGZUCHENGRUOGANGEZIWEIMINTUAN。

乐仑彩票QIANCHUKAIPUDUNDEBUERRENQIANXIZHEFENWEILIANGLU,YILUXIANGDONGBEIDENATAERDIQUQIANJIN,YU1840NIANZAINATAERDIQUCHENGLILENATALIYAGONGHEGUO。1842NIAN,YINGGUORENYIBUERRENTONGSHOUYINGGUOBAOHUDETUZHUQIUZHANGGUOJIAOZHANWEIYOU,ZAIDEBANGANGDENGLU,YU1843NIANBAOWEILEBIDEMALICIBAO,TUNBINGLENATALIYAGONGHEGUO。DANGDIDEBUERRENBUYUANYIJIESHOUYINGGUODETONGZHI,ZAILAOBILETUOLIWUSIDEDAILINGXIA,ZAICIXIANGXIBIANDENEILUGAOYUANDIDAIQIANYI。DIERLUBUERRENQIANXIDAJUNZEXIANGBEI,YIBUFENYUEGUOWAERHE,YUCONGNATAERXIANGXIQIANXIDEBUERRENHUIHE,JIANLILEJIGEMINGWEI“GONGHEGUO”DEXIAOZHIMINQU,RULAIDENGBAOGONGHEGUO、WENBAOGONGHEGUO。

通过同当地部落和土著王国的战斗,这些小殖民区最终在1849年合并,建立了德兰士瓦共和国,德兰士瓦的意思为“越过瓦尔河”。其首都被命名为比勒陀利亚,以纪念带领布尔人摆脱英国统治的老比勒陀利乌斯。老比勒陀利乌斯以布尔人的代表自居,出面和英国人谈判,德兰士瓦共和国的独立在1852年获得了英国的承认。除了这些人之外,还有另外一部分布尔人留在了奥兰治河以北、瓦尔河以南的地区,于1844年宣布独立,并在1854年同英国签订《布隆方丹协定》,建立了独立的奥兰治自由邦共和国乐仑彩票,首都为布隆方丹。小比勒陀利乌斯几次试图吞并奥兰治自由邦,统一布尔人国家,但是因德兰士瓦内部的权利斗争而未能实现,所以南非得以维持两个布尔人国家长时间并存的局面。

4、布尔战争

1867NIAN,AOLANZHIHEDIQUFAXIANZUANSHI。AOLANZHIZHENGFULIJISHENGMING,ZHEIYIDIQUGUIZIJIGUANXIA。YINGGUODEZHIMINZHEJILIFANDUI,BINGYINMOUCEHUATUNBINGLIANGGEBUERRENGONGHEGUODEJIHUA。1877NIAN,YINGGUORENCHUBINGWULITUNBINGDELANSHIWAGONGHEGUO,ZHEIYIXINGWEIJIQILEBUERRENDEWULIFANKANG。1881NIAN2YUE,BUERJUNZAIMAZUBASHANFUJINJIBAILE1000DUOMINGYINGJUN,POSHIYINGGUOZAIBAOLIUBUFENQUANLIDEMINGYIXIA,CHENGRENDELANSHIWADEDULI,BINGXIANGHUQIANDINGHEYUE。1886NIAN,ZAINANFEIZHONGBUDEYUEHANNEISIBAODIQU,YIWEIJIAOQIAOZHI·HALISENDEAODALIYAQINGNIANZAIYICIOURANJIHUIZHONGFAXIANLESHIJIESHANGZUIDADEHUANGJINKUANGQU。KUANGQUYIYUEHANNEISIBAOCHENGWEIZHONGXIN,XIANGDONGNANHEXINANLIANGYIKUOZHAN,XINGCHENGLEZHANGYUE500GONGLIDEJINHUDAI,ZHANSHIJIEHUANGJINCHUZANGLIANGDE1/4ZUOYOU。ZHEIYIZHONGDAFAXIANGUDONGCHENGQIANSHANGWANDEOUZHOUZHIMINZHECHAOSHUIBANDIYONGLAI。ZAIJIEXIALAIDESINIANZHONG,ZHIMINZHEZUZHILE141JIAKUANGYEGONGSI,FENGKUANGDIKAICAIKUANGQUDEZUANSHIHEHUANGJIN,HUODEGAOELIRUN。JIANCIJULI,YINGGUORENHEBUERRENMAODUNJINYIBUJIANRUI。

1895NIAN,YINGGUOZHENGFUMIMIZHISHIKAIPUDUNZHIMINZONGDULUODESITUNBINGDELANSHIWA。YUSHI,LUODESIPAIQIANYIZHIZHUANGBEIJINGLIANGDE800RENJUNDUI,TOUXIDELANSHIWASHOUFU,TONGSHISHIXIANCEHUACHENGNEIDEYINGGUOQIAOMINBAODONGZUOWEINEIYING。DANSHI,ZHEIYIJIMIBEIXIANGYUYINGGUOZHENGDUOSHIJIEBAQUANDEDEGUOZHENGFUHUOXI,BINGZHUANGAODELANSHIWAZHENGFUTIQIANZUOHAOZHUNBEI。1896NIAN1YUE2RI,ZAIKELEKESIDUOPUCHENGJIAO,2000DUOMINGBUERJUNFUJIYINGJUN,DASI134REN,JIAOHUOSUOYOUYINGJUNQIANGXIE。ZAIZHEICICANBAIHOU,LUODESIBEIPOCIQUKAIPUDUNZONGDUDEZHIWU。YINGGUOZHENGFUYIFANGMIANYONGWAIJIAOSHOUDUANCHAISANDEGUOYUBUERGUOJIADEJUNSHITONGMENG;LINGYIFANGMIANJIAJINYUNBINGDAOKAIPUDUN,DUIBUERRENSHIJIAYALI。DAZHANYICHUJIFA。

1899NIAN8YUE,YINGGUOZHIMINDACHENYUESEFU·ZHANGBOLUNMILINGYUBUERRENTANPANDEDAIBIAOTICHUJIECHUBUERJUNDEWUZHUANGDENGYAOQIU。CENGLIANGCIDABAIYINGJUNDEBUERTONGZHIZHEGENBENBUNENGJIESHOU,XIANGFAN,TAMENRENWEIZIJIZHANYOUSHI,XIANGCHENYINGJUNZHANZHENGBUSHUSHANGWEIJIUXU,DABAIYINGJUN。10YUE9RI,BUERRENTONGZHIZHEXIANGYINGJUNTICHUZUIHOUTONGDIE,YAOQIUYINGJUNZAICIRIXIAWU5DIANQIANCHEZOU。BUERRENQIAQIAZHONGLEZHANGBOLUNDEJIMOU,YINWEIYINGJUNZHENGSHIXIANGJIEDUIFANGDEXIANKAIQIANGLAIBOQUGUOJITONGQING。10YUE11RI,BUERRENXIANXIANGYINGJUNKAIHUO,YINGGUORENZHENGSHIXUANZHAN,BUERZHANZHENGBAOFA。

GANGKAISHI,YINGJUNCHUYUBEIDONGDIWEI。1900NIAN2YUE,YINGJUNZHUANRUDAGUIMODEFANGONG,ZAI4GEYUENEIGONGXIANDELANSHIWADESHOUFUBILETUOLIYA。9YUE10RI,YINGGUOZHENGFUXUANBUJIANBINGDELANSHIWAHEAOLANZHI。DANSHI,ZHANZHENGHAIZAIJIXU,BUERJUNZAINONGCUNJINXINGGUANGFANDEYOUJIZHAN,POSHIYINGJUNCAIQUYEMANCANKUDE“SANGUANG”ZHENGCELAIFANJI。

ZHANZHENGYUELAIYUEZOUDAOJINTOU,SHUANGFANGSHANGWANGCANZHONG。BUERRENJIHUQUANGUOCHENGNIANNANZIDOUBEIDONGYUANDANGBING,TUDIQUESHAORENSHOUGENGZHONG,SHENGCHUBINLINJUEZHONG。YINGGUOZESANYIZHUSHUAI,TOURU45WANJUNDUI,SHANGWANGJIN10WANREN,HAOZI2.23YIYINGBANG。ZHEIZHONGCHENZHONGDAIJIASHIGUONEIRENMINFANZHANQINGXUGAOZHANG,SHIJIEYULUNYEQIANGLIEDIPENGJIYINGGUO。NIANMAIDEWEIDUOLIYANVWANGWEIZHANZHENGRIYEJIAOLV,YOUXINCHONGCHONG,NVWANGZUIZHONGYU1901NIAN1YUEBINGSHI。

乐仑彩票1902NIAN5YUE31RI,YINGGUOZHIDAOBUNENGSHAJUEBUERREN,BIANYUQIQIANDING《FULINIXINHEYUE》,GUIDINGYINGGUOSHIBUERRENDEHEFAZHUQUANZHE,DANCHENGRENBUERRENDEZIYOUHECAICHAN,BINGBOKUANYUANZHUBUERRENZHONGZHENGJIAYUAN,SHELIZIZHIZHENGFU。

BUERZHANZHENGSUIRANYIYINGGUOSHENGLIERJIESHU,RANER,DAYINGDIGUOQUECHUYUJIQIBULIDEDIWEI。OUZHOUZHUQIANGJIHUYIZHIQIANZEYINGGUOZAINANFEIDEZHENGCE,YINGGUOBEIPOFANGQIWAIJIAOCHUANTONGZHONGDE“GUANGHUIGULI”ZHENGCEHE“DALUJUNHENG”ZHENGCE,XIANHOUQIANDINGXIEYI,CHENGLI“SANGUOXIEYUE”JUNSHIJITUAN,GENGSHENDIJUANRUDAOOUZHOUZHENGZHIXUANWOZHONG,BAZIJIKUNSHANGLE“XIEYUEGUO”DEZHANCHE,WEICANYUYIZHANJINERZAOSHOUJUDASUNSHIMAIXIAFUBI。

5、南非联邦建立

1838-1906NIAN,YINGGUORENYUZULUWANGGUOZHIJIANCENGJINGBAOFAGUODUOCIZHANZHENG,QIZHONGYOU10CIZHONGDAZHANYISHINATAERDEYINGGUORENDUIZHENYAFEIZHOURENGANDAOLIBUCONGXIN。ERCISHIZAIAFEILIKAREN(BUERRENDEHOUDAI)SHANGCENGCHUXIANLEYIBOTAHESHIMOZIWEISHOUDEYIXIEQINYINGPAI,TAMENZHUZHANGLIANGZHONGBAIRENLIANHEQILAI,YIBIANAFEILIKARENNENGZAIYINGGUODETONGZHIXIAWEIZIJIMOUQUGENGDADELIYI。TAMENDENULIDEDAOLEHUIBAO。1905NIAN,XINSHANGTAIDEYINGGUOZIYOUDANGZHENGFUYUNXUAFEILIKARENTONGGUODAXUANZAIDELANSHIWAHEAOLANZHIZHONGXINZHIZHENG,JIANLIZIZHIZHENGFU。1908NIAN,AFEILIKARENZAIKAIPUZHIMINDIDEXUANJUZHONGYEHUOCHENGGONG。ZHEIYANG,ZAISIGEZHIMINDIZHONGJIUYOUSANGEYOUAFEILIKARENZHANGQUAN。ZHEISHIDEAFEILIKARENPOQIEXIWANGJIANLIYIGE“TONGYIDENANFEI”。

乐仑彩票DUIYUZHANHOUDEYINGGUOERYAN,TAYEXIWANGJINKUAICONGNANFEIDEKUANGYESHENGCHANHEDUIWAIMAOYIZHONGHUODEJINGJILIYI,YIDADAOZHANGQITONGZHINANFEIDEMUDE。YINCI,JIANLIYIGE“TONGYIDENANFEI”SHIYINGGUORENHEAFEILIKARENSHUANGFANGGONGTONGDEYUANWANG。JINGGUOJINIANDEXIESHANG,ZAI1908NIAN10YUE,4GEZHIMINDIDEDAIBIAOZAIDEBANGONGTONGTAOLUNLEJIANLINANFEILIANBANGDEWENTI,BINGQICAOLEXIANFACAOAN。1909NIAN1YUE,YINGGUOYIHUIZHENGSHIPIZHUNLE《NANFEIFAAN》。1909NIAN9YUE20RI,YINGGUOAIDEHUAQISHIPIZHUNLEGAIFAAN。

1910NIAN5YUE31RI,NANFEILIANBANGXIANFAZHENGSHISHENGXIAO。CONGCI,KAIPU、NATAER、DELANSHIWAHEAOLANZHISIGEZHIMINDIHEBINGWEI“NANFEILIANBANG”,YIYIGEZIZHILINGDESHENFENJIARUYINGGUO,YINGGUONVWANGWEINANFEILIANBANGGUOJIAYUANSHOU。

6、南非走向独立

NANFEILIANBANGCHENGLIHOU,JUZHUZAINANFEILIANBANGSIGEZHIMINDIDEAFEILIKARENDADAO60WAN,YUANYUANCHAOGUOYINGYIBAIRENDESHULIANG。TAMENJUYOUXIANGTONGDEWENHUA、ZONGJIAO(JIAERWENPAIGAIGEJIAOHUI)HEYUYAN(YOUHELANYUYANHUAERCHENGDEAFEILIKAYU)。ZHEIYANG,GEZHIMINDIAFEILIKARENDEZHENGDANGJIUHENKUAIJIECHENGLEYIGEZHENGDANG——NANFEIDANG,YOULUYI·BOTARENZHUXI。

ZAI1910NIAN9YUEDENANFEIDIYICIDAXUANZHONG,NANFEIDANGJIBAILEYINGYILIANBANGDANG,ZAI1911NIAN11YUEZHENGSHICHENGLILENANFEILIANBANGZHENGFU。YINGGUOSHOUMINGQINYINGDEBOTACHURENSHOUJIELIANBANGZONGLIBINGZUGE,BOTAQUSHIHOUYOUSHIMOZIJIERENZHIDAO1924NIAN。CONG1924—1939NIANYOUHEERZUOGEJIANLIDEGUOMINDANGYULAOGONGDANGLIANHEZHIZHENG,1948NIANMALANLINGDAODEGUOMINDANGSHANGTAIZHIZHENGDAO1994NIANXINNANFEIDEDANSHENG。

NANFEIZUICHUYIYINGDIGUO(HOULAISHIYINGLIANBANG)ZIZHILINGDESHENFENCHUXIAN。TADEZHUQUANHEDULISHIBUWANZHENGDE。ZHIDAO1919NIAN,NANFEILIANBANGDAIBIAOCHUXILEBALIHEHUI,TACAIDIYICIYIZHUQUAN、DULIHEPINGDENGDEZITAICHUXIANZAISHIJIEWUTAISHANG。

乐仑彩票1926NIAN,GENJUYINGGUO《BEIERFUXUANYAN》,NANFEICHENGLIWAIJIAOBU,BINGKAISHIZAIGUOJISHIWUZHONGXINGSHIYIGEDULIGUOJIADEQUANLI。1931NIAN,GENJUYINGGUOYIHUITONGGUODE《WEISIMINSITEFA》,NANFEIYIHUIYU1934NIANTONGGUOLE《LIANBANGDIWEIFA》,ZHENGSHITONGGUOFALVJIANGNANFEIDEZHUQUANGUODIWEIQUEDINGLEXIALAI。ZHIHOU,NANFEIBUJINYIZHUQUANGUOJIADESHENFENCANJIALEDIERCISHIJIEDAZHAN,HAICHENGWEILIANHEGUOCHUANGSHIHUIYUANGUO。TADEZHUQUANHEDULIDIWEISHOUDAOGUOJISHEHUIDEPUBIANCHENGRENHEZUNZHONG。

乐仑彩票1960NIAN,NANFEITUICHUYINGLIANBANG。1961NIAN5YUE21RI,NANFEIGUOMINDANGZHENGFUBANBULE《NANFEIGONGHEGUOXIANFA》。ZHEISHINANFEIDIERGEDAFA,YU1910NIANBANBUDE《NANFEIFA》XIANGBI,GAIFAZAINEIRONGHEXINGSHISHANGMEIYOUTAIDADEBIANDONG,RENGRANWEICHIBAIRENZHONGZUZHUYIDETONGZHI。1961NIAN5YUE31RI,NANFEIGONGHEGUOZHENGSHICHENGLI。

7、南非与西南非洲

18SHIJIQIAN,ZHANLINGNANFEIDEHELANRENCENGDUIWOERWEISIWANJINXINGGUORENWENDILIKAOCHA,YOUYUWOERWEISIWANFUJINDUOJINGYU,ZHIMINZHEBIANBAZHEIYIHAIWANCHENGZUOJINGWAN。1878NIAN,YINGGUOZHIMINZHEZHANLINGLEGAIGANG。YINGGUOQUEMEIYOUJINYIBUZHANLINGXINANFEIZHOUYIDAIHAIAN,YIZHIBEIDEGUOJIANLEBIANYI。

乐仑彩票1883NIAN,BULAIMEISHANGRENADAOFU·LVDELICIDAOXINANFEIZHOUNANWEI20°~ 28°ZHIJIANDEANGELA--BEIKENDIQUDENGLU,YONGSHAOLIANGBUQIANGHEMAKEXIANGDANGDIBULUOQIUZHANGHUANDE350 PINGFANGGONGLIDETUDI,BINGQINGQIUDIGUOZHENGFUDEBAOHU。

1884 NIAN4 YUE,JINGBISIMAISHOUYI,DEGUOZHUKAIPUDUNZONGLINGSHITONGZHIYINGGUONANFEIZHIMINDANGJU,LVDELICISUOZHANTUDICHUYUDEGUOBAOHUZHIXIA。DEGUOZAIXINANFEIZHOUJIANLILEDIYIKUAIHAIWAIZHIMINDI。ERYINGGUOZIRENWEIDUIANGELAHEHAOWANGJIAOZHIJIANDEXINANFEIZHOUYANHAIDIQUJUNYOUHEFALINGTUYAOQIU。YINGDEZAIFEIZHOUZHIMINDIDEMAODUNSHOUCITUXIAN。

乐仑彩票1890NIAN,YINGGUOTONGRUQINNAMIBIYAJIXINANFEIZHOUDEDEGUOQIANSHULEHUAFENZAIFEIZHOUDESHILIFANWEIDEXIEYI,YINGGUOCHENGRENDEGUOZHANLINGNAMIBIYA,DANGSHICHENGDESHUXINANFEIZHOU,DANSHIWOERWEISIWANBUBAOKUOZAINEI,RENGYOUYINGGUOZHANLING。

乐仑彩票1910NIAN,YINGGUOZAINANFEIDEZHIMINDIZUCHENGLENANFEILIANBANG,WOERWEISIYECHENGWEINANFEILIANBANGKAIPUSHENGDEYIBUFEN。

DIYICISHIJIEDAZHANQIJIAN,1915NIAN7YUE,YINGGUOXUNLINGNANFEICHUBINGZHANLINGLEDESHUXINANFEIZHOU。

1919NIAN1YUE18RIZHAOKAIDEBALIHEHUI,JINGGUOWUGEDUOYUEDEJILIEZHENGLUN,ZUIZHONGDIJIELEFANERSAIHEYUE。HEYUEDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFENSHIGUOJILIANMENGMENGYUE。TASUIZHEFANERSAITIAOYUEYU1920NIAN1YUE10RISHENGXIAO。GUOJILIANMENGMENGYUEDIERSHIERTIAOGUIDINGLEDUIYUDEGUODEZHIMINDIHEAOSIMANDIGUODESHUDISHIXINGWEIRENTONGZHIDECHULIYUANZE。QIZHONG,GUOLIAN1920NIAN12YUE17RIWEIRENNANFEITONGZHIXINANFEIZHOU。DANGDIRENMINBUKANRENSHOUNANFEIBAIRENDETONGZHI,XIANHOUBAOFABANGDEERSIWATEREN、LEIHUOBOSIHUNXUEZHONGRENHEAOWANBORENDEFANKANGDOUZHENG。

乐仑彩票1949NIAN4YUE,NANFEIYIHUITONGGUO《XINANFEIZHOUSHIWUXIUZHENGFA》,JIANGXINANFEIZHOUZUOWEIBENGUOLINGTUDUIDAI,BINGTUIXINGZHONGZUGELIZHENGCE。

1960NIAN4YUE,XINANFEIZHOURENMINZUZHI(JIANCHENGRENZUDANG)CHENGLI,KAISHIJINXINGZHENGQUMINZUDULIDEDOUZHENG。

乐仑彩票1966NIAN10YUE,LIANDATONGGUOJUEYIXUANBUQUXIAONANFEIDUIXINANFEIZHOUDE“WEIRENTONGZHI”。

1968NIAN,LIANHEGUODAHUIGENJUXINANFEIZHOURENMINDEYIYUANJUEDINGJIANGXINANFEIZHOUGENGMINGWEINAMIBIYA。

MIANDUINAMIBIYAZHENGQUMINZUDULIDOUZHENGRIYIGAOZHANG,NANFEIGAIBIANCHUZHONG,GUIDINGCONG1977NIAN9YUE1RIQI,WOERWEISIWANBUZAISHUYUXINANFEIZHOU,ZHONGXINHUAGUINANFEIGONGHEGUOKAIPUSHENG。WOERWEISIWANCENGSHINANFEIZAINAMIBIYADEZHUYAOHAILUKONGJUNSHIJIDI,BINGPAIZHULEDALIANGZHIMINJUNDUI。

1978NIAN9YUE,LIANHEGUOANLIHUITONGGUO《GUANYUCHENGLILIANHEGUOGUODUSHIQIYUANZHUTUANXIEZHUNAMIBIYATEBIEDAIBIAOGONGZUO》DEJUEYI,JI435HAOJUEYI,YAOQIUZHONGZHINANFEITONGZHI,TONGGUOLIANHEGUOJIANDUXIADEGONGMINTOUPIAOSHIXIANNAMIBIYADULI。ZAIGUOJISHEHUIDEYIZAIDUNCUXIA,NANFEIZAINAMIBIYAZHUQUANWENTISHANGDELICHANGYOUSUOSONGDONG,DANYOUGUCHUITONGGUO“DUOZHONGZUDEZHIXIANTANPAN”ZAINAMIBIYAGAO “NEIBUJIEJUE”。

1985NIANNANFEIYOUQIANSHU“NAMIBIYAZIZHIXUANYAN”,CHENGLILEYOU“DUODANGHUIYI”ZUCHENGDE“MINZUTUANJIEGUODUZHENGFU”。ZHEIYIQIEDOUWEIDEDAOLIANHEGUOJIGUOJISHEHUIDECHENGREN。GUOJIJIANGUANYUNAMIBIYADULIDETANPANCHIXUBUDUAN。YOUYUNANFEIJIANCHI“LIANXIFANGAN”,BAGUBACONGANGELACHEJUNZUOWEISHIXIANNAMIBIYADULIDEXIANJUETIAOJIAN,YIJISHEZHIQITAZHANGAI,ZHEIXIETANPANDOUWEIQUDESHIZHIXINGDEJINZHAN。

乐仑彩票1988NIAN5YUE,NANFEIYUANGELA、GUBAHEMEIGUOZAILUNDUNZHONGKAITANPAN。TONGNIAN12YUE22RI,AN、GU、NANSANGUOZAINIUYUEQIANSHUGUANYUHEPINGJIEJUEXINANFEIZHOUWENTIDESANFANGXIEYI,TONGYICONG1989NIAN4YUE1RIQISHISHI435HAOJUEYI。

乐仑彩票1989NIAN,ZAILIANHEGUOJIANDUXIAJUXINGZHIXIANYIHUIHEZONGTONGXUANJU,RENZUDANGHUOSHENG,QIHOUXUANRENNUQIAOMADANGXUANZONGTONG。

1990NIAN3YUE21RIXUANBUDULI。JIUZAINANFEIZHONGZUGELIZHONGJIE、XINNANFEIDANSHENGDEQIANXI,1994NIAN2YUE28RIWUYE,NANFEIJIANGWOERWEISIWANGUIHAIJINAMIBIYA。

8、新南非建立

NANFEIDANGJUZHANGQIZAIGUONEIYILIFAHEXINGZHENGSHOUDUANTUIXINGZHONGZUQISHIHEZHONGZUGELIZHENGCE。1948NIANGUOMINDANGZHIZHENGHOU,QUANMIANTUIXINGZHONGZUGELIZHIDU,ZHENYANANFEIRENMINDEFANKANGDOUZHENG,ZAODAOGUOJISHEHUIQIANZEHEZHICAI。1961NIANTUICHUYINGLIANBANG(1994NIANZHONGXINJIARU),CHENGLINANFEIGONGHEGUO。1989NIAN,DEKELEKECHURENGUOMINDANGLINGXIUHEZONGTONGHOU,TUIXINGZHENGZHIGAIGE,QUXIAODUIHEIRENJIEFANGZUZHIDEJINLINGBINGSHIFANGFEIZHOURENGUOMINDAHUI(FEIGUODA)ZHUXINAERXUN·MANDELADENGHEIRENLINGXIU。1991NIAN,FEIGUODA、NANFEIZHENGFU、GUOMINDANGDENG19FANGJIUZHENGZHIJIEJUENANFEIWENTIJUXINGDUODANGTANPAN,BINGYU1993NIANJIUZHENGZHIGUODUANPAIDACHENGXIEYI。

1994NIAN4-5YUE,NANFEIJUXINGSHOUCIBUFENZHONGZUDAXUAN,YIFEIGUODAWEISHOUDEFEIGUODA、NANFEIGONGCHANDANG、NANFEIGONGHUIDAHUISANFANGLIANMENGYI62.65%DEDUOSHUHUOSHENG,MANDELACHURENNANFEISHOURENHEIRENZONGTONG,FEIGUODA、GUOMINDANG、YINKATAZIYOUDANGZUCHENGMINZUTUANJIEZHENGFU。ZHEIBIAOZHIZHEZHONGZUGELIZHIDUDEJIESHUHEMINZHU、PINGDENGXINNANFEIDEDANSHENG。1996NIAN,ZAILINSHIXIANFAJICHUSHANGQICAODEXINXIANFABEIZHENGSHIPIZHUN,BINGYU1997NIANSHISHI。