古文化常识分类积累练(宗法礼俗) 

乐仑彩票HENANYONGHEGAOZHONGZHULAOSHIZHENGLI

(一)宗法常识、

乐仑彩票ZONGFA,ZHIGUDAIYIJIAZUWEIZHONGXIN,ANXUETONGYUANJINQUBIEQINSHUDEFAZE。TABAOKUOFENGJIANSHEHUIGUIDINGDEDISHU、XITONGDEFAZEHEJIAZUZHONGJISI、HUNJIA、JIASHU、QINGDIAO、SONGZHONGDENGSHIQINGDEJIAFA。ZHEIZHONGZHIDUSHIWEIWEIHUFENGJIANDENGJIZHIDU、GONGGUGUIZUSHIXITONGZHIFUWUDE,YINCIDEYIZAIFENGJIANSHEHUIZHONGZHANGQIBAOCUN。

乐仑彩票1.DIZI FENGJIANZONGFASHEHUIZHONGZHIZHENGQISUOSHENGDEERZI。YOUSHIYEZHIZHENGQISUOSHENGDEZHANGZI,JI“DIZHANGZI”。CONGZHOUDAIQI,WANGWEIYIBANDOUYOUDIZHANGZISHIXI,ZHIZHIQINGMO。

2.ZONGZI ZHIDIZHANGZI。YIZONGFA,DIZHANGZIYAOJICHENGDAZONG,WEIXIONGDIZURENSUOGONGZUN。TAYOUJISISHIZUDETEQUAN,YAOJICHENGTEBIEDUODEYICHAN,YINGSHOUXIAOZONGDEZUNJING。ZONGZIYESHIYIZONGZHIZU,DIWEITEBIEGAOGUI,GUYOUJIAO“ZONGZHU”。

3.SHUZI FENGJIANZONGFASHEHUIZHONGZHIQIE(XIAOQI)SHENGDEERZI。ZHOUDAIYIHOUWANGWEIYOUDIZISHIXI,ZHUHOUDEJUNWEIYERUCI。ZONGFASHEHUIYI“SHADILISHU”WEIFEIFA。

乐仑彩票4.ZHONGZI ZHIDIZHANGZIYIWAIDEZHUZI。BAOKUOZHANGZIYIWAIZHENGQISUOSHENGDEDIZIHEXIAOQIESUOSHENGDESHUZI。

5.BOZHONGSHUJI GUDAIXIONGDIHUOZIMEIJIANYIZHANGYOUPAIXINGSHI,XIGUANSHANGYIBO、ZHONG、SHU、JIWEIXU。YIBANLAISHUO,“BO”SHILAODA,“ZHONG”SHILAOER,“SHU”SHILAOSAN,“JI”SHIZUIXIAODE。RU《ZUOCHUAN·WENGONGSHIBANIAN》:“GAOXINSHIYOUCAIZIBAREN:BOFEN、ZHONGKAN、SHUXIAN、JIZHONG、BOHU、ZHONGXIONG、SHUBAO、JILI。”CIXUYIBO、ZHONG、SHU、JIBINGXUNHUANSHIYONG。XIONGDIZIMEIZHONGNIANJIZUIDADECHENG“BO”,YOUSHIYECHENG“MENG”,DANERZHEYOUQUBIE:DIZHANGZICHENG“BO”,SHUCHUZHANGZICHENG“MENG”。LINGWAI,YIN“BO”ZHILAODA,“ZHONG”ZHILAOER,SUOYIHOUDAICHANGYONG“BOZHONG”ZHIXIONGDIHUOBIAOSHIBUXIANGSHANGXIA。RULUYOU《SHUFEN》:“CHUSHIYIBIAOZHENMINGSHI,QIANZAISHEIKANBOZHONGJIAN!”

6.QINQI ZAIGUDAI,“QIN”BIAOSHIDEQINSHUGUANXIBIJIAOGUANGFAN,ERNVDUIFUMUKEYICHENG“QIN”,FUMUDUIERNVYEKEYICHENG“QIN”。QIANZHERU《SONGDONGYANGMASHENGXU》:“QIJIANGGUIJIANQIQINYE。”HOUZHERU《ZUOCHUAN·YINGONGSINIAN》JIZAIWEIGUODAFUSHIQUE(què)SHADIAOMOUSHAGUOJUNDEERZISHIHOUSHI,SHUOSHIQUESHI“DAYIMIEQIN”。“QI”BIAOSHIQINSHUGUANXISHIBI“QIN”SHUYUANXIE,SHIYONGPINLVJIDI。HANDAIYIHOU,“QIN”ZHUYAOBIAONEIQIN,“QI”BIAOWAIQIN。“QIN”YU“QI”LIANYONGSHI,YOUSHIZHIFUMUXIONGDIDENGBENZONGTONGXINGQINSHU,YOUSHIZHINEIWAIQINSHU,BAOKUOBENZONGYUWAIYIN,JITONGXINGBENZUYUYIXINGWAIZUYINQIN。RU《LIANPOLINXIANGRULIECHUAN》:“CHENSUOYIQUQINQIERSHIJUNZHE,TUMUJUNZHIGAOYIYE。”

乐仑彩票7.LIUQIN FANZHIQINSHU。DANJUTISHUOFABUYI:AN《ZUOCHUAN》SHUO,ZHIFUZI、XIONGDI、GUZI、SHENGJIU、HUNGOU、YINYA;AN《ZHOUYI》SHUO,ZHIFUZI、XIONGDI、FUFU;AN《HANSHU》SHUO,ZHIFUMU、XIONGDI、QIZI;DENGDENG。

8.SANDANG ZHIFUDANG、MUDANG、QIDANG,YIJIFUZU、MUZU、QIZU。

乐仑彩票9.SANGANG FENGJIANSHIDAIDEYIZHONGDAODEGUIFAN,JI“JUNWEICHENGANG”“FUWEIZIGANG”“FUWEIQIGANG”DEHECHENG。YISISHICHENYAOJUEDUIFUCONGJUN,ZIYAOJUEDUIFUCONGFU,QIYAOJUEDUIFUCONGFU。ZUIXIANYOUHANDAIDONGZHONGSHUTICHU,HOUJINGLIDAIFENGJIANTONGZHIJIEJIJIAYIXITONGHUA,CHENGWEIJINGURENMENSIXIANGDEYITAOFENGJIANJIAOYI。

乐仑彩票10.WUCHANG(1)JI“WULUN”,SHIFENGJIANLIJIAOSUOGUIDINGDEJUNCHEN、FUZI、XIONGDI、FUFU、PENGYOUZHIJIANDELUNLIGUANXI,JIJUNCHENYOUYI、FUZIYOUQIN、ZHANGYOUYOUXU、FUFUYOUBIE、PENGYOUYOUXIN。ZHEIXIERENLUNGUANXI,FANYINGLEFENGJIANSHEHUIDEDENGJIGUANNIAN。WULUNZHONGJUNCHENGUANXIJUYUSHOUWEI,GUYOUJIAO“DALUN”。RU《LUNYU·WEIZI》:“ZHANGYOUZHIJIE,BUKEFEIYE;JUNCHENZHIYI,RUZHIHEQIFEIZHI?YUJIEQISHEN,ERLUANDALUN。”

乐仑彩票(2)JI“WUXING”,ZHIJIN、MU、SHUI、HUO、TUWUZHONGWUZHI。

乐仑彩票(3)ZHIREN、YI、LI、ZHI、XIN。

11.SANCONGSIDE“SANCONG”YU“SIDE”DEHECHENG。“SANCONG”ZHIWEIJIACONGFU、JIJIACONGFU、FUSICONGZI;“SIDE”ZHIFUDE、FUYAN、FURONG、FUGONG。SANCONGSIDESHIFENGJIANLUNLIDAODENUYIFUNVDEJINGSHENJIASUO。

乐仑彩票12.WUJIAO SHIFU、MU、XIONG、DI、ZIWUZHEZHIJIANDEFENGJIANGUANXIZHUNZE,JIFUYI、MUCI、XIONGYOU、DIGONG(GONG)、ZIXIAO。

13.QICHU FENGJIANSHEHUIYIQIQIZIDEQIZHONGJIEKOU。BAOKUOBUSHUNFUMU,WUZI,YIN,DU,YOUEJI,KOUDUOYAN,QIEDAO。YOUQIZHONGZHIYIJIUKEYIYIQI。YOUJIAO“QIQU”“QIQI”,SHIWEIWEIHUFUQUANERZHIDINGDEPOHAIFUNVDELIJIAO。

14.KAOBI JIUSHIFUQINSIHOUCHENG“KAO”,MUQINSIHOUCHENG“BI”。RU《LIJI·QULIXIA》:“SHENGYUEFU,YUEMU,YUEQI;SIYUEKAO,YUEBI,YUEPIN。”《XIANGJIXUANZHI》:“SHIXILIANYUZHONGGUI,XIANBICHANGYIZHI。”

15.ZHAOMU GUDAIZONGFAZHIDUXIAZONGMIAOPAILIEDECIXU。SHIZUMIAOZAIZHONGJIAN,YIXIAGEDAIANZHAOBEIFEN,FENBIELIEYULIANGCE:ERSHI、SISHI、LIUSHIJUZUO,WEIZHAO;SANSHI、WUSHI、QISHIJUYOU,WEIMU。HOUYOUZONGMIAODECIXU,YOUTUIGUANGDAOFENDIZANGWEIHEJISISHIDEPAILIESHUNXU,HOUYOUFANZHIYIBANZONGZUDEBEIFEN。

16.SANGFU JIUSHIJUSANGSHICHUANDAIDEFUSHI。GENJUYUSIZHEGUANXIDEQINSHU,FENWEIWUDENG,CHENGZUO“WUFU”,BAOKUO“ZHANSHUAI”“QISHUAI”“DAGONG”“XIAOGONG”“SIMA”。SANGFUZHIDUFANYINGLENANZUNNVBEIDEGUANNIAN,YEFANYINGLEXUETONGQINSHUDEDENGJI。XIGUANSHANGYIWUFUZHINEIWEIQIN,WUFUYIWAIWEISHU。

乐仑彩票17.QIGONG GUDAISANGFUDEMINGCHENG。QI,FUSANGYINIAN。GONG,ZHIDAGONGHEXIAOGONG,FENBIEWEIJIUGEYUEHEWUGEYUE。RU:

乐仑彩票WAIWUQIGONGQIANGJINZHIQIN。(《CHENQINGBIAO》)

乐仑彩票18.QIMIAO LIDAIDIWANGWEIWEIHUZONGFAZHIDU,SHEQIMIAOGONGFENGQIDAIZUXIAN,TAIZUMIAOJUZHONG,ZUOSANZHAO,YOUSANMU。HOUYI“QIMIAO”WEIWANGCHAODEDAICHENG。RU:

YIFUZUONANERQIMIAOHUI。(《GUOQINLUN》)

19.TAIMIAO TIANZIDEZUMIAO。RU:

RUYUTAIMIAO,HAISHIXIANWANG,ERGAOYICHENGGONG。(《LINGGUANCHUANXU》)

(二)礼俗习俗

1.ZUNBEI

SHINEIZUOWEIZUNBEI

乐仑彩票GUSHIZUOCI、ZUOXIANGGUIDINGYANGE,YIBANZUOBEICHAONANWEIZUNWEI。RU《HONGMENYAN》:“YAFUNANXIANGZUO,——YAFUZHE,FANZENGYE;PEIGONGBEIXIANGZUO。”

CHEZUODEZUNBEI

乐仑彩票GUSHICHEZUOFENZUOZHONGYOU。YIBANCHEZUOYIZUOWEIZUN,RU《XINLINGJUNQIEFUJIUZHAO》:“ZUODING,GONGZICONGCHEQI,XUZUO。”

GUANWEIDEZUNBEI

乐仑彩票QINHANYIQIAN,CHAOTANGJIGUANWEIDUOYIYOUWEIZUN,YIZUOWEIBEI。

ZHUDICHENGWEI

乐仑彩票GUSHIBAGUIZUCHENGWEIYOUZUHUOHAOYOU,PINJIANZHEJUZHUZHIDICHENG“LVZUO”,BIANGUANCHENG“ZUOQIAN”。

2.JIHUI

(1)GURENHUIYAN“QIAN”ZI

“GURENYIQIANZHIMINGBUYAXUN,JINSHENXIANSHENGNANDAOZHI,GUYIQIMINGYUEFU,YUELU,YUEXIANG,TIANZIQIANLIWAIYUECAI。”CHANGJIANDESHUOFASHI“KONGFANGXIONG”。ZAIRU,BAQINGRENZUOSHIWENSHUHUADECHOULAOQIANWUCHENGWEI“RUNBI”。

(2)GURENHUIYANDAXIAOBIAN

CHANGJIANDESHUOFAYOU“GENGYI”“CHUGONG”“JIESHOU”DENG。RU《CHIBIZHIZHAN》:“QUANQIGENGYI,SUZHUIYUYUXIA。”

(3)GURENHUIYAN“SI”

《LIJI·QULIXIA》ZAI:“TIANZISIYUEBENG,ZHUHOUSIYUEHONG,DAFUSIYUEZU,SHISIYUEBULU,SHURENYUESI。”ZONGJIAOJIAOYIZHONGYEHUIYANSI,RU:XIGUI、XIANYOU、SHENGTIAN、ZUOHUA、YUANJI、NIEPAN、JIUMU、RUTU、XIESHI、ZUOGUDENG。XIANDAIHANYUZHONGRUSHISHI、ZHANGMIAN、YUNAN、JUANQU、XUNGUO、YAOZHEDENG。

3.BIHUI

BIHUISHIJISHANGSHIYIZHONGFANYINGFENGJIANLIFADEJIHUI,JIYUDAOYUJUNZHU、ZUNZHANGDEMINGXIANGTONGDEWENZIJIUCAIYONGMOUZHONGFANGFAHUIBI。ZHUYAOFENLIANGDALEI:YISHIGUOHUI,ERSHIJIAHUI。

(1)GUOHUI

乐仑彩票GUOHUIZHISHIWENZHONGBUZHISHUZAIWEISHENZHIQIANCHAOMOUXIEJUNZHUJIQIQINSHUDEMING。LIRU,《LVSHICHUNQIU》ZHONGCHENG“CHU”WEI“JING”,SHIYINWEI“ZHUANGXIANGWANGMINGZICHU,HUIZHIGUYANJINGYE”。《ZHIPINGPIAN》ZHONG“ZICIERYUANYAN”,YINBIKANGXIXUANYEHUI,GAI“XUAN”WEI“YUAN”。

(2)JIAHUI

YICHENGWEISIHUI,JISHUOHUAXINGWENZHONG,BIMIANTIDAOZIJIDEFUMING、ZUMING。LIRU,SIMAQIANZUFUMINGXI,SUOYI《SHIJI》ZHONG“XI”ZIJIEZUO“LI”。《XINLINGJUNQIEFUJIUZHAO》:“ZHAOWANGHONG,ANLIWANGJIWEI。”

(3)BIHUIDEFANGFA

GAIZIFA

JIUSHIBADIWANGJISUOZUNZHEZHIMINGGAIYONGQITAZILAIDAITI

KONGZIFA

乐仑彩票JIJIANGYINGBIHUIDEZIKONGERBUSHU,HUOZUO“MOU”,HUOZUO“□”

QUEBIFA

JIDUISUOBIZHIZISHAOXIEYILIANGBI

GAIYINFA

乐仑彩票JIUSHIDUSHUSHIYUDAOHUIZI,JIUGAIBIANSHENGDIAOHUODUBIEDEZIYIN

4.LISUXISUCHENGWEI

(1)WULI WUZHONGLIDEHECHENG。GUDAIYIJISIDESHIWEIJILI,GUANHUNDESHIWEIJIALI,BINKEDESHIWEIBINLI,JUNLVDESHIWEIJUNLI,SANGZANGDESHIWEIXIONGLI。

(2)LIULI YOULIANGZHONGJIESHI:

①ZHIGUANLI、HUNLI、SANGLI、JILI、XIANGYINJIULI、XIANGJIANLI。

②ZHIHUNYINCHENGLIDESHOUXU,JINACAI、WENMING、NAJI、NAZHENG、QINGQI、QINYING。

(3)GUANLI GUDAINANZICHENGNIANSHIJUXINGJIAGUANDELIYI。GUDAIWEICHENGNIANDENANZISHUFA,BUDAIGUAN;20SUIXINGGUOJIAGUANLIHOUZEBIAOZHIZHEJINRUCHENGNIANLE。HOUDAIGUANLISUIFEI,DANRENGBAOLIU“JIAGUAN”“YIGUAN”“RUOGUAN”“WEIGUAN”DENGSHUOFA。RU《SONGDONGYANGMASHENGXU》:“JIJIAGUAN,YIMUSHENGXIANZHIDAO。”《JIMEIWEN》:“YURUOGUAN(CHUJIAGUAN,TIYOUWEIZHUANG,GUCHENGRUOGUAN)YUEXING。”

(4)JI(jī)LI GUDAINVZIDAOLECHENGNIANSHIJUXINGDEPANFACHAJI(JIZANZI)DELIYI。JUXINGJILIDENIANLINGYIBANZAI15SUISHI,BIAOSHINIANJIECHENGREN,KEYIJIEHUN。HOULAINVHAIZIDAOLECHENGNIANYOUCHENG“JIJI”“JINIAN”。

(5)ZUO LIANGXIZHEDI,LIANGGUTIEZAIJIAOGENSHANG,SHI“ZUO”。LIANGXIZHEDI,ZHISHEN,GUBUZHEJIAOGEN,SHI“GUI”。GUIERTINGYAOSONGSHEN,JIAOZUO“JI”(jì)。

乐仑彩票ZUOXIYEYOUJIANGJIU,SUOWEI“XUZUOJINHOU,SHIZUOJINQIAN”。JINHOU,SHIJINLIANGBASHENTIWANGHOUZUOYIDIAN,BIAOSHIQIANGONGDEYANGZI;JINQIAN,SHIJINLIANGBASHENTIWANGQIANNUOYIDIAN,BUYINYINSHIERDIANWUZUOXI。

乐仑彩票(6)GUI YUZUOBUTONG,WANGWANGZAIYOUJISHIHUOBIAOSHIXIEZUIZHISHI,ZHISHEN,LIANGGUYELIKAILEJIAOGEN。SUOYIQIANRENZHICHUGUIYUZUOERZHEDEQUBIESHI“GUIWEIERZUOAN”。RU《SHIJI·CIKELIECHUAN》:“JINGKEJIANTAIZI,YANTIANGUANGYISI,ZHIGUANGZHIYAN。TAIZIZAIBAIERGUI,XIXINGLIUTI。”GUIYOUBIAOSHIDUIZHANGZHEDEZUNJING。《LUNYU》:“‘DIAN,ERHERU?’GUSEXI,KENGER,SHESEERZUO,DUIYUE:‘YIHUSANZIZHEZHIZHUAN。’”ZHEILIDE“SHESEERZUO”,JIUSHIZHICENGXIFANGXIASE,CONGXIDIERZUODAOSONGSHENZHIQIYAOLAI,YUGUIZHEXIANGTONG,BIAOSHIZUNJING。

(7)ZHANGGUI ZHITINGZHISHANGSHENERGUI,BIAOSHIGONGJING。RU《KONGQUEDONGNANFEI》:“FULIZHANGGUIGAO:‘FUWEIQIAMU,JINRUOQIANCIFU,ZHONGLAOBUFUQU!’”

(8)JI GUIQI,ZHUNBEIQISHEN,XISHANGZAIDISHANG。RU《HONGMENYAN》ZHONGXIEFANKUAIJINZHANG,“XIANGWANGANJIANERJIYUE:‘KEHEWEIZHE?’”JI,SHISHOUJINGERSONGSHENYUQIDEYANGZI。

(9)JIJU LIANGGUZHEDISHENZHILIANGTUI,XINGSIBENJI,JIAOZUO“JIJU”。ZHEIZHONGZISHISHIBIAOSHIAOSHIDUIFANGDEYISI。RU《SHIJI·CIKELIECHUAN》XIEJINGKECIQINWANGBUZHONG,SHENBEIBACHUANG,“KEZIZHISHIBUJIU,YIZHUERXIAO,JIJUYIMA”。JIJU,JIUSHIZHEIZHONGLIANGGUZHEDISHENZHILIANGTUIDEYANGZI。

乐仑彩票(10)BAI BAISHIGURENCHANGYONGDEBIAOSHILIJIEDEFANGSHI,JIUSHIXINGLIKOUTOU。BUTONGDECHANGHE,YONGBUTONGDEBAILI。《ZHOULI·CHUNGUAN·DAZHU》:“BIANJIUBAI,YIYUEJISHOU,ERYUEDUNSHOU,SANYUEKONGSHOU,SIYUEZHENDONG,WUYUEJIBAI,LIUYUEXIONGBAI,QIYUEQIBAI,BAYUEBAOBAI,JIUYUESUBAI。”

乐仑彩票BAILIZHONG,LIJIEZUIZHONGDESHIJISHOU。JISHOUYUDUNSHOU、KONGSHOUBUTONG。YIBANSHUOLAI,JISHOUSHICHENBAIJUNZHIBAI,DUNSHOUSHIDIWEIXIANGDENGZHEHUXIANGZHIBAI,KONGSHOUSHIGUOJUNHUILICHENXIAZHIBAI。

乐仑彩票DUNSHOUSHIBAIGUIYUDI,YINTOUZHIDI,TOUDUNDIJIJUQI,SUOYIJIAOZUODUNSHOU。

KONGSHOUSHIBAIGUIYUDI,XIANYILIANGSHOUGONGZHIDI,ZAIYITOUZHISHOU,YINQITOUBUZHIDI,SUOYIJIAOZUOKONGSHOU。

JISHOUSHIBAIGUIYUDI,YINTOUZHIDI,DUOSHIFANGQI,YINWEITOUKOUDIDUOSHI,YOUSUOJILIU,YINCIJIAOZUOJISHOU。

SUBAISHIBAILIZHONGLIJIEZUIQINGDE。《ZHOULI·CHUNGUAN》ZHU:“DANFUXIASHOU,JINSHIYI(yī)SHIYE。”ZHISHIGONGSHOUXINGLI,JIUSHIXIANZAIDEYI。JUNDUIZHONGYOUZHEIYANGDESUBAI。FURENXINGLI,ZHUYAOYESHISUBAI。BAOBAISHISHOUCHIFUJIEXINGDELI。SANGLIZHONGXIANZUODUNSHOUHOUZUOJISANG(sǎng),JIAOJIBAI;XIANJISANGHOUDUNSHOU,JIAOXIONGBAI;ZHENDONG,SHIZHANLIBIANDONGZHIBAI。

乐仑彩票(11)YI GUDAIZUOYIYUHOUSHIBUTONG,GURENZUOYISHITUISHOU。《YILI·XIANGYINJIULIBINYANJIEZHU》:“TUISHOUYUEYI。”GURENZUOYI,GENJUDUIXIANGDEBUTONG,TUISHOUSHIYOUGAOPINGXIAZHIBIE。《ZHOULI·QIUGUAN》:“TUYISHUXING,SHIYIYIXING,TIANYIBAIXING。”DUISHUXING,MEIYOUQINSHUGUANXI,TUISHOUSHISHAOWEIWANGXIA,JIAOTUYI。DUIYIXING,SHIZHIYOUHUNYINGUANXIDE,ZEYONGSHIYI,PINGTUISHOU。DUITONGXING,SHITONGYIGEZUDE,JIUYONGTIANYI,TUISHOUSHISHAOWEIJUGAO。

乐仑彩票(12)ZHISHOU BIAOSHIQINNIDEXINGLIFANGSHI,HEXIANZAIDEWOSHOUXIANGSI。ZUIXIANJIANYU《SHIJING》:“ZHIZIZHISHOU,YUZIXIELAO。”YOURULIUYONG《YULINLING》:“ZHISHOUXIANGKANLEIYAN,JINGWUYUNINGYE。”

(13)SHOU YIJIUHUOWUXIANGBIERENZHUFU。RU《HONGMENYAN》:“PEIGONGFENGZHIJIUWEISHOU。”

(14)QU CHENJIANJUNSHIDELIJIE。XIAOBUKUAIZOU,BIAOSHIGONGJING。RU《CHULONGSHUOZHAOTAIHOU》:“RUERXUQU。”

乐仑彩票(15)JIAOYING DAOJIAOWAIDENGHOUYINGJIE,YIBIAOJINGZHONG。RU《ZHANGUOCE·QINCEYI》:“FUMUWENZHI,QINGGUANCHUDAO,ZHANGLESHIYIN,JIAOYINGSANSHILI。”

乐仑彩票(16)WANFU JIUSHIFUNVDUIRENXINGLI,KOULISHUOZHE“WANFU”,HOULAIYONG“WANFU”ZUOWEIXINGLIDEDAICHENG。RU《LUTIXIAQUANDAZHENGUANXI》:“KANNEIFUREN,SUIWUSHIFENDERONGMAO,YEYOUXIEDONGRENDEYANSE,SHIZHEYANLEI,XIANGQIANLAISHENSHENDEDAOLESANGEWANFU。”

(17)JIUBIN YECHENG“JIUYI”,GUDAIWAIJIAOSHANGZUILONGZHONGDEYIZHONGLIYI,YOUJIUMINGBINXIANG(YINGBINZANLIRENYUAN)LIYUDIANTING,JIEYINBINKESHANGDIAN。RU《LIANPOLINXIANGRULIECHUAN》:“QINWANGZHAIWURIHOU,NAISHEJIUBINLIYUTING,YINZHAOSHIZHELINXIANGRU。”

乐仑彩票(18)CHAO(cháo) ZHOUDAIGEGUODEZHUHOU,ANGUIDINGDESHIJIANJINJIANZHOUTIANZI,JIAO“CHAO”。《WANGZHI》:“WUNIANYICHAOTIANZI。”LINGYIZHONGSHUOFASHI《ZUOCHUAN·ZHAOGONGSHISANNIAN》DUYUZHU:“SANNIANYICHAO。”MEICICHAOJIANTIANZI,DOUYAODAIZHEYUBO、SHOUPI、ZHENWANHETUCHANDENGGONGPIN,JIAOZUO“CHAOGONG”。RU《ZUOCHUAN·YINGONGBANIAN》:“ZHENGBOYIQIRENCHAOWANG,LIYE。”RUGUOBUANSHICHAOJIANTIANZI,JIUBEIRENWEISHIBUZUNJINGTIANZI,TIANZIJIUYAOCHUBINGTAOFA。RU《ZUOCHUAN·YINGONGJIUNIAN》:“SONGGONGBUCHAO,ZHENGBOWEIWANGZUOQINGSHI,YIWANGMINGTAOZHI,FASONG。”

(19)JIN CHAOBAIHUANGDI。GUDAIZHUHOUCHAOJIANTIANZICHENGJIN。ZHUHOUCHUNJIANYUECHAO,QIUJIANYUEJIN。ZHUHOUCHAOJIANTIANZIDEYISHICHENGJINLI。JINLIGUIDING,TIANZIBUDEXIATANGJIANZHUHOU,XIATANGERJIANZHUHOUZETIANZISHILI。RU《TANSITONG》:“ZHIQIYUE,NAIFUBINGRUJIN,ZOUDUICHENGZHI。”

(20)PIN

①TIANZIPAIQINGDAFUJIANZHUHOUJIAO“PIN”。RU《LIJI·WANGZHI》SHU:“QITIANZIYIYOUSHIDAFUPINZHUHOUZHILI。”ZHUHOUDEFENGFANGMIANYOUTUCHUCHENGJIUDE,TIANZIWANGWANGYEPAIRENQUPINWEN。RU《ZUOCHUAN·YINGONGQINIAN》:“DONG,TIANWANGSHIFANBOLAIPIN。”FANBOSHITIANZIDEDAFU,ZHOUWANGPAITALAIJIANLUYINGONG。

②ZHUHOUDEGUOJUNJIWEI,QIANGDADEZHUHOUGUOLAIHEJIAN,YEJIAO“PIN”。RU《ZUOCHUAN·XIANGGONGYUANNIAN》:“JIUYUE,ZHU(Zhū,JIZOU)ZILAICHAO,LIYE。”“DONG,WEIZISHU、JINZHIWUZILAIPIN,LIYE。”ZHUSHIXIAOGUO,SUOYIJIAOCHAO;WEI、JINSHIDAGUO,JIUJIAOPIN。

乐仑彩票③ZHUHOUPAIDAFUJIANBIEGUOZHUHOUYEJIAO“PIN”。ZHEISHIZHUHOUZHIJIANBANGJIAODELIJIE。《WANGZHI》:“BINIANYIXIAOPIN,SANNIANYIDAPIN。”《ZUOCHUAN·YINGONGQINIAN》:“QIHOUSHIQIDILAIPIN。”ZHUHOUXIANGPIN,SHIZHEHAIDAIZHEYUBO,BIAOSHIZUNJINGDUIFANGDEYISI。SUOYI《ZUOCHUAN》ZHUYUE:“ZHUPINJIESHIQINGZHIYUBOYIXIANGCUNWEN。”

(21)MENG LIANGGUOYISHANGHUOLIANGRENYISHANGHUXIANGXUANSHIYUEDINGLAIXIETONGBANSHIJIAO“MENG”。HUIMENGSHISHASHENG、SHAXUE,BINGQIEXUANDUMENGSHU,SHIYUSHEN,JIAOZUO“MENGLI”。《QULI》:“LISHENGYUEMENG。”“MENG”YU“SHI”BUTONGZHICHUJIUZAIYUJUXINGYISHISHIYAOSHASHENG、SHAXUE。YUYOUJINAN,ZHUHOUZHIJIANHUIJIAN,JUXINGMENGLI,GONGTONGYUEDING,XIANGHUYUANZHU,JIUJIAO“HUIMENG”。RU《GUOQINLUN》:“ZHUHOUKONGJU,HUIMENGERMOURUOQIN。”

JIEMENGYIHOU,SHUANGFANGJIUYOUYIWUYUESHU。RU《ZUOCHUAN·XIANGGONGSANSHINIAN》JISONGGUOZAIWUYUEJIANZAOTEDAHUOZAI,DONG,YUSONGTONGMENGDESHIYIGEZHUHOUHUIYUCHANYUAN,GONGTONGYICAIHUOLAIYUANZHUSONGGUO。

(22)MIANZHOU ZHOU,KUI。ANGUDAILIFA,ZHUHOUDEJUNDUIGUOTIANZIMEN,ZHANCHESHANGDEZUOYOUWEISHIBIXUTUOZHOUJUANJIA,SHOUHAOBINGQI,XIACHEBUXINGERGUO,YISHIDUITIANZIDEZUNJING。RU《YAOZHIZHAN》:“ZUOYOUMIANZHOUERXIA。”

(23)ZU GUDAIJIANXINGSHIDEYISHI,JICHUXINGZHIQIANJISILUSHEN,YINSHENWEIZAIBANLUSHANGWEIBIERENSHEYANSONGBIE。RU《JINGKECIQINWANG》:“ZHIYISHUISHANG,JIZU,QUDAO。”

(24)ZHAIJIE GURENZAIJISIHUOJINXINGZHONGDAHUODONGQIAN,XUMUYUGENGYI,BUHEJIU,BUCHIHUN,JIEJINGSHENXIN,BIAOSHIQIANCHENG。RU《LIANPOLINXIANGRULIECHUAN》:“YUSHIZHAOWANGNAIZHAIJIEWURI,SHICHENFENGBI,BAISONGSHUYUTING。”

(25)SHEJI GUDAIDIWANG、ZHUHOUSUOJIDETUSHENJIAO“SHE”,GUSHENJIAO“JI”。HOULAIJIUYI“SHEJI”DAIBIAOGUOJIA。RU《CHENSHESHIJIA》:“JIANGJUNSHENBEIJIANZHIRUI,FAWUDAO,ZHUBAOQIN,FULICHUGUOZHISHEJI,GONGYIWEIWANG。”《WURENMUBEIJI》:“GUYUYUTONGSHEZHUJUNZI,AISIMUZHITUYOUQISHIYE,ERWEIZHIJI,YIYIMINGSISHENGZHIDA,PIFUZHIYOUZHONGYUSHEJIYE。”

(26)XISHENG GUDAIJISISHIBAZAISHADENIU、YANG、ZHUDENGSHENGCHUJIAOZUO“XISHENG”。ZUOJISIYONGDEMAOSECHUNYIDESHENGCHUJIAO“XI”,TIQUANJIAO“SHENG”。GUDAIYOUYOU“SANSHENG”ZHISHUO,ZHIJISIYONGDENIU、YANG、ZHU。HOULAIYEYIJI、YU、ZHUWEI“SANSHENG”。RU《CAOGUILUNZHAN》:“XISHENGYUBO,FUGANJIAYE,BIYIXIN。”

(27)TAILAO GUDAIJIPIN,ZHINIU、YANG、ZHUGEYONGYITOU。

(28)SHAOLAO GUDAIJIPIN,ZHIZHU、YANGGEYITOU。RU《LINGGUANCHUANXU》:“QIHOUYONGBING,ZEQIANCONGSHIYIYISHAOLAOGAOMIAO。”

乐仑彩票(29)SI GUDAISHEHUIBUTONGDIWEIDERENDESIYOUBUTONGDECHENGWEI。《LIJI·QULIXIA》:“TIANZISIYUEBENG,ZHUHOUSIYUEHONG,DAFUSIYUEZU,SHISIYUEBULU,SHURENYUESI。”

(30)BAIXING GUDAINULISHEHUIDUIGUIZUDEZONGCHENG。GUIZUYOUXING,PINGMINWUXING,ZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGZAICHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIDAIRENGRANCUNZAI。DAOLEHANDAI,ZITIANZIYIZHIYUYIBANPINGMINCAIJIEKEYIYOUXINGLE。“BAIXING”SUISUIZHIZHICHENGYIBANPINGMINLE。

(31)BUYI JIPINGMIN。GUDAIPINGMINCHUANMABUGEYI,GU“BUYI”CHENGLEPINGMINDEDAICHENG。RU《LIANPOLINXIANGRULIECHUAN》:“CHENYIWEIBUYIZHIJIAOSHANGBUXIANGQI,KUANGDAGUOHU?”《CHUSHIBIAO》:“CHENBENBUYI,GONGGENGYUNANYANG,GOUQUANXINGMINGYULUANSHI,BUQIUWENDAYUZHUHOU。”

(32)CHEN ZUICHUZHINANXINGNUPU,GENNVXINGDE“QIE”XIANGDUI。HOULAICHENGWEIJUNZHUSHIDAIGUANLIHEBAIXINGDETONGCHENG。RU《ZOUJIFENGQIWANGNAJIAN》:“LINGCHUXIA,QUNCHENJINJIAN,MENTINGRUOSHI。”LINGWAI,“CHEN”YOUSHIBIAOSHIQIANBEIDEZICHENG。《MOZI·GONGSHU》:“BEIFANGYOUWUCHENZHE,YUANJIEZISHAZHI。”

乐仑彩票(33)LIMIN JI“PINGMIN”“ZHONGMIN”ZHIYI。YECHENG“LISHU”“LIYUAN”DENG。

乐仑彩票(34)SHI SHANG、ZHOUSHIZUIDIJIDEGUIZUJIECENG。QINGDAFUXIAMIANSHISHI,ZHEIZHONG“SHI”TONGCHANGDANRENQINGDAFUTONGZHIQUYU(JIJIA)DEJIACHEN。CHUNQIUYIHOU“SHI”YOUCHENGLEWUSHI、WENSHIDECHENGWEI,ZAIYIHOUBIANZHUJIANCHENGLETONGZHIJIEJIZHONGZHISHIFENZIDETONGCHENGLE。RU《XINLINGJUNQIEFUJIUZHAO》:“GONGZIWEIREN,RENERXIASHI。”《ZHINANLUHOUXU》:“JINSHEN、DAFU、SHICUIYUZUOCHENGXIANGFU,MOZHIJISUOCHU。”

(35)NULI WEINULIZHULAODONGERWURENSHENZIYOUDEREN,CHANGCHANGBEINULIZHURENYIMAIMAIHUOSHAHAI。ZUICHUDE“ZHONG”“XI”“PU”“CHEN”“QIE”DOUSHINULI。

(36)QIANSHOU ZHANGUOSHIQINGUOJIHOULAIQINWANGCHAODUIPINGMINDEJIANCHENG。QIAN,HEISE。QIANSHOU,YOURUHEITOU。JUSHUOQINSHANGHEISE,DANGSHIPINGMINJIEYONGHEIBUBAOTOU,GUMING。RU《GUOQINLUN》:“YUSHIFEIXIANWANGZHIDAO,FENBAIJIAZHIYAN,YIYUQIANSHOU。”

乐仑彩票(37)SHUREN YEJIAO“SHUMIN”。XIZHOUYIHOUDUINONGYESHENGCHANZHEDECHENGWEI,QISHENFENBINULIGAO。

(38)XIAOREN XIZHOU、CHUNQIUSHIDAIDUIBEITONGZHIDELAODONGRENMINDECHENGWEI。YOUZHIDAODEDIXIADEREN。QIANZHEYU“DAREN”XIANGDUI,HOUZHEYU“JUNZI”XIANGDUI。RU《CHUSHIBIAO》:“QINXIANCHEN,YUANXIAOREN,CIXIANHANSUOYIXINGLONGYE;QINXIAOREN,YUANXIANCHEN,CIHOUHANSUOYIQINGTUIYE。”LINGWAI,“XIAOREN”YOUSHIJIUSHIDIWEIDIDERENDUISHANGZICHENGDEQIANCI。RU《LINJIAOTOUFENGXUESHANSHENMIAO》:“LIXIAOERBIANBAIDAO:‘ZICONGDEENRENJIUJI,JIFAXIAOREN,YIDILITOUBENRENBUZHE,YILIBUXIANGLAIDAOCANGZHOU,TOUTUOYIGEJIUDIANZHUREN,XINGWANG,LIUXIAORENZAIDIANZHONGZUOGUOMAI。’”

乐仑彩票(39)QINGLU YONGQINGBUDACHENGDEPENG,GUDAIJUXINGHUNLIDEDIFANG,DONGHANZHITANGYOUZHEIZHONGFENGSU。RU《KONGQUEDONGNANFEI》:“QIRINIUMASI,XINFURUQINGLU。”

乐仑彩票(40)WENDING XIANGCHUANZHOUWENWANGBUDEJIZHAONAZHENGDINGHUNHOU,QINYINGTAISIZHIWEIBIN。HOUSHIYINCIYI“WENDING”DAICHENGDINGHUN。

判断下列对古文化常识解说的正误。

1.稽首,是古代汉族的一种跪拜礼。稽首与顿首、空首不同,一般说来,稽首是臣拜君之拜,顿首是国君回礼臣下之拜,空首是地位相等者互相之拜。()

2.古代男子18岁时举行加冠礼,叫作“冠”,即戴上表示已成人的帽子,但体犹未壮,还比较年少,故称“弱冠”,20岁才为成年。()

3.郊祭,犹郊祀。古代于郊外祭祀天地,南郊祭天,北郊祭地,是儒教礼仪中的主要部分,祭祀对象分为三类:天神、地祇、人鬼。()

4.“立生祠”是古代的一种民俗,即老百姓自发地为活人修建祠堂并加以奉祀。其对象都是深得民心的官员。()

5.“伏阙”,即拜伏于宫阙下。多指臣下直接向皇帝上书奏事。()

6.“服除”,即脱去孝服。古代以亲属关系的远近制定丧服的轻重,穿大功服的亲族服丧一年,穿小功服的亲族服丧五个月。()

7.“服阕”指古人服丧三年后除去丧服。阮元因丁父忧离职,服丧期满后担任兵部侍郎。()

8.“丁卯、己巳、戊申”,皆为古时天干地支纪时的术语,可以用来纪日、纪月和纪年,古人常将之与五行结合预测人的命运。()

9.社稷:社,古代指谷神,即农业之神;稷,指土地之神。古时的君主为了祈求国事太平、五谷丰登,每年都要到郊外祭祀土地和五谷神,社稷也就成了国家的象征。()

10.舆榇,指古代把棺材装在车上随行,表示有罪当死或就死之意。过去常用“面缚舆榇”表示放弃抵抗。()

答案:

1.× 顿首是地位相等者互相之拜,空首是国君回礼臣下之拜。

2.× 古代男子20岁时行加冠礼,以示成年,又称弱冠,而非18岁。

3.√

4.ד自发地”“其对象都是深得民心的官员的说法不正确。有的朝代,也可能是谄媚者或慑于其势者所为;奉祀的对象也不一定是深得民心的官员

5.√6.× 穿大功服的亲族服丧九个月。

7.√8.

9.× 社,古代指土地之神;稷,指谷神,即农业之神。10.

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